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Exploring the Relationship between Salivary Levels of TNF-α, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus gasseri, Obesity, and Caries in Early Childhood

Laboratory of Clinical and Molecular Microbiology, University São Francisco, Bragança Paulista, São Paulo 12916-900, Brazil
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Academic Editors: Dongmei Deng, Alessandra Nara de Souza Rastelli and Lei Cheng
Pathogens 2022, 11(5), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11050579
Received: 3 February 2022 / Revised: 1 May 2022 / Accepted: 2 May 2022 / Published: 14 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Bacteria: Friends and Foes?)
This research aimed to explore the relationship between tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus), Lactobacillus gasseri (L. gasseri), obesity, and early childhood caries. After caries and obesity diagnosis based on the WHO criteria, 94 preschoolers were assessed. Unstimulated saliva was collected for analysis of TNF-α by the Milliplex system and for L. acidophilus and L. gasseri using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In obese children, each unit increase in the body mass index (BMI), and the TNF-α levels was associated with a one-time increase in the number of decayed surfaces (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, in eutrophic preschoolers, the presence of L. gasseri and L. acidophilus was linked, respectively, to an increase of 3.04 and 1.59 times in the number of decayed surfaces (p < 0.05); in obese children, the presence of L. acidophilus was not significant (p > 0.05) and L. gasseri was shown as a possible protective indicator (RR:0.49–p < 0.05). In conclusion, TNF-α and BMI were connected to carious lesions only in obese preschoolers, suggesting that inflammation could be underscored when both pathologies are concomitant. The presence of both species of lactobacilli investigated was connected with early childhood caries in eutrophic children, whereas in obese children only L. gasseri was significant, and in an opposite way, reinforcing that obesity can modulate oral bacteria. View Full-Text
Keywords: salivary cytokines; dental caries; child; obesity salivary cytokines; dental caries; child; obesity
MDPI and ACS Style

Leme, L.A.F.P.; Rizzardi, K.F.; Santos, I.B.; Parisotto, T.M. Exploring the Relationship between Salivary Levels of TNF-α, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus gasseri, Obesity, and Caries in Early Childhood. Pathogens 2022, 11, 579. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11050579

AMA Style

Leme LAFP, Rizzardi KF, Santos IB, Parisotto TM. Exploring the Relationship between Salivary Levels of TNF-α, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus gasseri, Obesity, and Caries in Early Childhood. Pathogens. 2022; 11(5):579. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11050579

Chicago/Turabian Style

Leme, Lúcia A.F.P., Karina F. Rizzardi, Isis B. Santos, and Thaís M. Parisotto. 2022. "Exploring the Relationship between Salivary Levels of TNF-α, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus gasseri, Obesity, and Caries in Early Childhood" Pathogens 11, no. 5: 579. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11050579

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