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Soc. Sci., Volume 7, Issue 2 (February 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Youth Work in Turkey: A Sector Newly Emerging and Marked by Political Competition
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7020031
Received: 23 January 2018 / Revised: 13 February 2018 / Accepted: 21 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
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Abstract
Youth work is a very recent field in Turkey and the evolution of the field has been very much influenced by the European institutions, especially with the European Union candidacy process of Turkey. Youth work in Turkey can be analyzed in three different
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Youth work is a very recent field in Turkey and the evolution of the field has been very much influenced by the European institutions, especially with the European Union candidacy process of Turkey. Youth work in Turkey can be analyzed in three different layers since the central government, local government (municipalities) and civil society organization all have youth work activities. During our Horizon 2020 PARTISPACE research project, we conducted ethnographic research to shed light on the local characteristics of youth work in a central Anatolian city in Turkey. The cases we discuss in the scope of this paper based on our ethnographic research includes two youth centers, one run by a central government agency, the Ministry of Youth and Sports, the other by a local municipality run by the party of opposition. The study reveals the influence of local dynamics and political competition in the development of youth policy and youth work. Our research demonstrates that, even if youth work is not a priority in the public policy agenda, it has become an object of political competition in Turkey. Full article
Open AccessArticle Deconstructing Civil Society Actors and Functions: On the Limitations of International Frameworks for Fragile States
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7020030
Received: 17 January 2018 / Revised: 15 February 2018 / Accepted: 20 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
Over the past three decades, there has been a steady increase of funds by the international community to support civil society organizations (CSOs) in fragile states. Surprisingly, this growing attention has not strengthened local civil society landscapes in a way that it would
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Over the past three decades, there has been a steady increase of funds by the international community to support civil society organizations (CSOs) in fragile states. Surprisingly, this growing attention has not strengthened local civil society landscapes in a way that it would lead to processes of social transformation. On the contrary, civic freedom and space is shrinking around the globe. In analyzing prominent international aid-effectiveness frameworks and donor strategies towards civil society, this paper will put forward one central argument. The way in which civil society actors and functions are currently appropriated threatens deep-rooted social transformation thereby impeding processes of structural and political change—necessary for the transition from conflict to sustainable peace. In delineating, how actors and functional approaches informed peacebuilding and development policy and practice, their strengths and limitations will be examined. Doing so, we draw on different case studies and examples from the literature. We find that existing frameworks for fragile states operate on a presumed model of a public sphere and civil society that may or may not exist. Such an approach disregards an organic formation of a civil society landscape thereby impeding processes of structural, social, and political change in times of fragility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Politics of Peace and Conflict)
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Open AccessArticle The Effects of Cueing and Framing on Youth Attitudes towards Gun Control and Gun Rights
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7020029
Received: 21 November 2017 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 12 February 2018 / Published: 15 February 2018
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Abstract
I analyze attitudes towards gun control from a recent survey of American high school students. For students who most closely identify as Republicans, cueing them to think about prior school shootings increases their agreement that armed staff in schools will improve safety and
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I analyze attitudes towards gun control from a recent survey of American high school students. For students who most closely identify as Republicans, cueing them to think about prior school shootings increases their agreement that armed staff in schools will improve safety and arming citizens will reduce risk of mass shootings. For those identifying as Democrats and Independents, providing them with selective information that certain states have loose gun control laws and low rates of gun violence makes them more supportive of gun rights. For Republicans, providing selective information that certain states have loose gun control laws and high rates of gun violence makes them less supportive of gun rights. These results suggest that emotional cues may exacerbate a priori biases, while informational cues may be more likely to change people’s minds about firearm policies. Full article
Open AccessArticle Differentiation in Higher Education: The Impact of Parental Education
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7020028
Received: 1 October 2017 / Revised: 29 December 2017 / Accepted: 11 February 2018 / Published: 13 February 2018
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Abstract
The widening of participation in higher education in recent decades has been heralded as a means toward the reduction of social class inequalities in higher education. Research findings indicate, though, that simply increasing the number of people attending higher education does not mean
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The widening of participation in higher education in recent decades has been heralded as a means toward the reduction of social class inequalities in higher education. Research findings indicate, though, that simply increasing the number of people attending higher education does not mean that social inequalities have been substantially reduced. The mass expansion of higher education has existed alongside a differentiated and stratified higher education. Students from more privileged socioeconomic backgrounds usually study in prestigious higher education institutions and departments which offer more ambitious occupational trajectories, while those from less privileged socioeconomic backgrounds usually attend lower status institutions and courses of study. Using official quantitative data, in this article we explore the correlation between familial cultural capital and distribution in higher education in Greece. The research findings show that the Greek higher education sector is differentiated, since students with parents who are higher education graduates are overrepresented in prestigious higher education departments and courses of study. Based on the research findings, we argue that initiatives to reduce social class inequalities in higher education need to tackle the issue of social class stratification in higher education and the unequal representation of people from different socioeconomic backgrounds in prestigious fields of study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Negative Gender Ideologies and Gender-Science Stereotypes Are More Pervasive in Male-Dominated Academic Disciplines
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7020027
Received: 13 December 2017 / Revised: 18 January 2018 / Accepted: 7 February 2018 / Published: 11 February 2018
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Abstract
Male-dominated work environments often possess masculine cultures that are unwelcoming to women. The present work investigated whether male-dominated academic environments were characterized by gender ideologies with negative implications for women. A survey of 2622 undergraduates across a variety of academic majors examined how
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Male-dominated work environments often possess masculine cultures that are unwelcoming to women. The present work investigated whether male-dominated academic environments were characterized by gender ideologies with negative implications for women. A survey of 2622 undergraduates across a variety of academic majors examined how gender imbalance within the major corresponded with students’ gender ideologies. We hypothesized that men in male-dominated domains might justify their dominance and prototypical status by adopting gender ideologies and stereotypes that denigrate women and treat men as the normative and superior group. Confirming this hypothesis, men in increasingly male-dominated academic majors were more likely to endorse Assimilationism—that women should adapt and conform to masculine work norms in order to succeed—and Segregationism—that men and women should pursue traditional social roles and careers. Moreover, they were less likely to endorse Gender Blindness—that attention to gender should be minimized. They were also more likely to agree with the gender-science stereotype that men do better in math and science than women. In contrast, gender imbalance in the major did not influence women’s gender ideologies, and women in increasingly male-dominated majors were significantly less likely to endorse the gender-science stereotype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Male-Dominated Domains)
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Open AccessArticle Action Not Words: Obama’s Opportunity to Transform U.S.-Muslim Relations
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7020026
Received: 5 December 2017 / Revised: 29 January 2018 / Accepted: 6 February 2018 / Published: 9 February 2018
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Abstract
Newly inaugurated President and Nobel Peace Prize winner Barack Obama made his diplomatic debut promoting conflict transformation between the United States and the international Muslim community following eight years of U.S. militarized intervention in the Middle East. Since Obama demonstrated an acute knowledge
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Newly inaugurated President and Nobel Peace Prize winner Barack Obama made his diplomatic debut promoting conflict transformation between the United States and the international Muslim community following eight years of U.S. militarized intervention in the Middle East. Since Obama demonstrated an acute knowledge of its necessity and the mechanisms for transforming the quality of relations, we evaluate whether his actions were consistent with his message. This article first maps the conflict relationship by examining public opinion to identify the roots of the bilateral conflict relationship. It then identifies mechanisms and policies implemented by Barack Obama to determine when and if they aligned with his conciliatory rhetoric. We determine that Obama’s legacy among the international Muslim community will be one of opportunity lost, as his administration ultimately failed to operationalize and institutionalize the promised program likely due to domestic and regional influences. Full article
Open AccessArticle Achieving Quality Education by Understanding Teacher Job Satisfaction Determinants
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7020025
Received: 21 December 2017 / Revised: 4 February 2018 / Accepted: 5 February 2018 / Published: 8 February 2018
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Abstract
The issue of quality education in Nigeria has come up in a number of studies. In particular, the teacher has been identified as a major resource in achieving the very important objective of quality basic education. This comes against the backdrop that teachers
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The issue of quality education in Nigeria has come up in a number of studies. In particular, the teacher has been identified as a major resource in achieving the very important objective of quality basic education. This comes against the backdrop that teachers are perceived to be in a better position to influence the performance of learners. However, how can they positively influence student performance if they themselves are not motivated? A total of 547 teachers in 23 schools (pre-nursery to senior high schools) in the Ibadan South-West Local Government Area in Oyo state, Nigeria participated in the study. SPSS software version 22 was used for data analysis. Descriptive analysis (mean and standard deviation) was done at the first stage and factor analysis at the second stage. The Kaiser’s criterion technique was also applied to determine the factors (components) to be retained for the factor analysis. Only factors with an Eigen value of 1.0 or more were retained for analysis. Kolmogorov-Smirnov’s and Shapiro-Wilk’s tests of normality were also used to test if the generated components (factors) are normally distributed, and the p-values of less than 0.001 for all the components indicated no normal distribution. Overall, the results suggest that teachers’ pay or salary, growth opportunities and responsibilities attached to work are the top three job characteristics variables that contribute to teacher job satisfaction. Full article
Open AccessArticle Parsing the Gulf between Africans and African Americans
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7020024
Received: 9 December 2017 / Revised: 28 January 2018 / Accepted: 2 February 2018 / Published: 7 February 2018
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Abstract
The rise in African immigrants to the US provides an opportunity to assess relations between Africans and African Americans in college. An online survey of 322 current and recently-graduated college students (including 45 Africans, 160 African Americans, and 117 whites) assessed respondents’ experiences
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The rise in African immigrants to the US provides an opportunity to assess relations between Africans and African Americans in college. An online survey of 322 current and recently-graduated college students (including 45 Africans, 160 African Americans, and 117 whites) assessed respondents’ experiences of racism in US high schools and colleges. Semi-structured interviews of 30 students (10 African, 10 African American and 10 white students) supplemented these data. Even within a sociopolitical context of more visible racial intolerance, Black intra-racial cohesion was absent. Although more first- and second-generation Africans (73%) felt that they had been judged while living in the US compared to African Americans (34%) or whites (20%), for 70–80% of respondents, this had occurred only in high school. Despite experiencing these judgments, Africans’ identity related more to their focus on education than their race, reflected in a higher proportion who felt intense family pressure to attend college (65%) compared to African Americans (37%) and whites (39%). Interview data confirmed previous reports in the literature that African Americans lack a sense of connection to Africans, attributed to Africans’ purported sense of superiority and disregard for African Americans’ ongoing struggle to end oppression. These mixed-methods data suggest that intermingling in the college environment has not resulted in first- and second-generation Africans and African Americans sharing a common in-group, race-based identity. We discuss the implications of overlooking ethnic distinctions due to presumptions of racial homogeneity that deprive Black individuals of their uniqueness. Full article
Open AccessArticle Chilly Climates, Balancing Acts, and Shifting Pathways: What Happens to Women in STEM Doctoral Programs
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7020023
Received: 16 December 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 21 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
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Abstract
Women in doctoral programs in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) leave without finishing at higher rates than men and, as with men, turn away from academic and research careers. This qualitative study examines the day-to-day influences on female doctoral students during their
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Women in doctoral programs in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) leave without finishing at higher rates than men and, as with men, turn away from academic and research careers. This qualitative study examines the day-to-day influences on female doctoral students during their third or fourth year in physical science and engineering programs. Ethnographic cognitive interviewing and online incident reports document the specific experiences and reactions of 28 participants over a six-month period. The data were analyzed to identify key incidents, categories and recurring themes. Some incidents contributed to women’s growing sense of competence, recognition and identification of oneself as a scientist. Others fit a model of microaggressions and gender barriers in a predominantly masculine culture. Problems of work-life balance were demonstrated for some women. Incidents generated responses by some participants that they would disengage from a research-intensive career trajectory toward alternate career interests outside of academic research. The findings provide information about the lived experiences of women in doctoral programs and suggest that the metaphor of career pathways may be more useful than pipelines in explaining the direction of women who are advanced doctoral students in research-intensive fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Male-Dominated Domains)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Impact of Trust, Commitment, and Openness on Research Project Performance: Case Study in a Research Institute
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7020022
Received: 1 December 2017 / Revised: 19 January 2018 / Accepted: 26 January 2018 / Published: 30 January 2018
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Abstract
This study focuses on three important shared values—trust, openness, and commitment—and examines the impact of these values on project performance and outcomes, specifically for science and innovation research projects. To this end, 12 in-depth interviews were conducted with researchers, research managers, and research
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This study focuses on three important shared values—trust, openness, and commitment—and examines the impact of these values on project performance and outcomes, specifically for science and innovation research projects. To this end, 12 in-depth interviews were conducted with researchers, research managers, and research leaders at the largest research institution in Scandinavia. The findings indicate that the three values (trust, openness, and commitment) are practiced at this research institution and are essential to effective teamwork. The findings also show that trust and openness promote shared understanding, and encourage commitment. Full article
Open AccessArticle Discourse from #TheRealUW: What Tweets Say about Racial Concerns at a Predominately White Institution
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7020021
Received: 2 December 2017 / Revised: 27 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 29 January 2018
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Abstract
In March 2016, after a series of hate crimes victimized students of color on campus, students at the University of Wisconsin-Madison started #TheRealUW movement against racism on campus. In order to exemplify racism on campus, students of color took to social media to
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In March 2016, after a series of hate crimes victimized students of color on campus, students at the University of Wisconsin-Madison started #TheRealUW movement against racism on campus. In order to exemplify racism on campus, students of color took to social media to share personal experiences and opinions on racism, affixing “#TheRealUW” to their posts. In this article, we analyze what students of color on the social media site, Twitter, spoke about and took issue against. The plurality of #TheRealUW tweets centered primarily on instances of subtle or explicit verbal racism. These experiences had impacted a variety of aspects of students of color’s lives, including mental health, housing, access to spaces, and overall quality of education. Students also discussed isolation, marginalized representation in the University’s decisions, and their relationship with authority. The many tweets clearly demonstrate the breadth of racism at predominately white institutions and indicate that inequality of peer and faculty social resources, opportunities, and experiences is a significant perpetuator of a variety of forms of racial inequality at predominately white institutions, but that racism in institutional and systemic forms is also an area of concern for students. Full article
Open AccessArticle Strategic Self-Presentation of Women in STEM
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7020020
Received: 9 December 2017 / Revised: 18 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
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Abstract
Despite a plethora of initiatives and a surge of research activity, women remain under-represented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines (National Science Foundation 2017). While much research has focused on ways to recruit women into these disciplines, less work has explored
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Despite a plethora of initiatives and a surge of research activity, women remain under-represented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines (National Science Foundation 2017). While much research has focused on ways to recruit women into these disciplines, less work has explored the strategies women use to navigate these contexts once they have entered. In a set of two experimental studies, we investigate women’s potential response strategies to the well-documented tension between female and STEM attributes in terms of individual self-presentation. In Study 1 (N = 240), we examine whether female STEM professionals have different impression goals when introducing themselves to professional peers versus a group of other women. In Study 2 (N = 169), we extend our inquiry to include self-presentation behavior as well as intentions. Across studies, we find that female STEM professionals hold different impression goals based on the audience with whom and context in which they expect to interact. These intentions align with actual self-introduction behavior, as observed in written self-introductions. Tuning one’s self-presentation, however, leads participants to feel less authentic. This work highlights one way women in male-dominated STEM contexts may navigate and strategically communicate their female and STEM identities to others, as well as the personal implications of doing so. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Male-Dominated Domains)
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Open AccessArticle International Development Policies and Coastalscape Metabolism: The Case of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7020019
Received: 14 December 2017 / Revised: 20 January 2018 / Accepted: 22 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
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Abstract
Over the last few decades, coastalscapes have been seriously threatened by the rising effects of climate change such as sea level rise, coastal degradation and extreme flooding. To cope with these threats, since 1992, international development organisations have promoted Integrated Coastal Zone Management
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Over the last few decades, coastalscapes have been seriously threatened by the rising effects of climate change such as sea level rise, coastal degradation and extreme flooding. To cope with these threats, since 1992, international development organisations have promoted Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) and its implementation in particular in coastal regions of the “Global South”. Inspired by a political ecology of development approach, this paper analyses coastalscape metabolism and community level socio-environmental transformations in relation to ICZM implementation politics in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. ICZM was designed to integrate management of coastal regions and to promote socio-economic and environmental sustainability. By adopting the concept of metabolism to coastalscapes, and reflecting on their interactions, data were collected through qualitative field-research at the community level in the Mekong Delta. Research shows that ICZM and its development initiatives implementation slightly shaped coastalscape governance and communities relations, merely influencing policy-making and state bureaucratic structure and legitimation. Rather, the Mekong Delta coastalscape was reconfigured by complex metabolic socio-environmental transformations which embed global political-economic processes, shifting water flows and climate change dynamics. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Communicating Gender-Equality Progress, Reduces Social Identity Threats for Women Considering a Research Career
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7020018
Received: 13 December 2017 / Revised: 18 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
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Abstract
Since the majority of top-level researchers are men, how does this vertical gender-segregation affect students’ perceptions of a research career? In the current study, an experimental manipulation either reminded students of academia’s current dominance of men or of its improving gender-balance. The results
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Since the majority of top-level researchers are men, how does this vertical gender-segregation affect students’ perceptions of a research career? In the current study, an experimental manipulation either reminded students of academia’s current dominance of men or of its improving gender-balance. The results showed that women primed with the dominance of men anticipated much higher social identity threats (e.g., fear of discrimination) in a future research career as compared to a control group. In contrast, women primed with the improving gender-balance anticipated much lower threat. Further, the dominance of men prime increased men’s interest in the PhD program, as compared to controls. Women’s interest was unaffected by the prime, but their lower interest as compared to men’s across conditions was mediated by their lower research self-efficacy (i.e., competence beliefs). The results imply that communicating gender-equality progress may allow women to consider a career in research without the barrier of social identity threat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Male-Dominated Domains)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Boys Club: Engineering a More Positive Environment for Women in Male-Dominated Majors
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7020017
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 24 January 2018 / Accepted: 24 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
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Abstract
Sexual harassment has been widely studied in the workforce, but the factors that contribute to hostile educational environments for women have received less attention. The present study focuses on male dominance, gender harassment, gender threats, masculinity, and their influences on creating a hostile
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Sexual harassment has been widely studied in the workforce, but the factors that contribute to hostile educational environments for women have received less attention. The present study focuses on male dominance, gender harassment, gender threats, masculinity, and their influences on creating a hostile environment for women in academia. One hundred and forty-two male participants from a private university in the Southwestern United States self-reported their masculinity, completed a group task with a female confederate leader serving as a gender threat in half the conditions, and had their subsequent affect, perceptions of leadership effectiveness, and behavioral aggression measured. Men from male-dominated majors and men who had received a gender threat did not differ from men from gender-equivalent majors and men who had not received a gender threat on affect, perceptions of leadership effectiveness, or behavioral aggression (ps > 0.201, ηp2s ≤ 0.007). However, post-hoc analyses revealed that as masculinity increased among men from male-dominated majors under gender threat, they became significantly more behaviorally aggressive (b = 5.92, p = 0.003) and perceived their female leader as less effective (b = −0.83, p = 0.076). Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Male-Dominated Domains)
Open AccessArticle Contemporary Feminist Analysis of Australian Farm Women in the Context of Climate Changes
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7020016
Received: 10 November 2017 / Revised: 17 January 2018 / Accepted: 19 January 2018 / Published: 23 January 2018
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Abstract
Climate changes are reshaping agricultural production and food security across the world. One result is that women in both the developed and developing world are increasingly being drawn into agricultural labour. Yet, because the labour of women has historically been marginalised and ignored,
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Climate changes are reshaping agricultural production and food security across the world. One result is that women in both the developed and developing world are increasingly being drawn into agricultural labour. Yet, because the labour of women has historically been marginalised and ignored, these changes remain largely unacknowledged. In this paper, we examine gender changes in agricultural labour allocations on Australian irrigated dairy farms impacted by climate-related reductions in water available for irrigation. In the Murray-Darling Basin area of Australia, long years of drought and the need to address ecological degradation have led to the introduction of water saving methods and these have had major impacts at the farm level. We present research indicating that a major outcome has been an increase in women’s labour on- and off-farms. Yet, the lack of attention to gendered labour distribution continues the historical neglect of women’s labour, maintains patriarchal relations in agriculture, significantly impacts women’s views of themselves as agricultural outsiders, and reduces attention to a gendered analysis of climate change outcomes. We argue that gender mainstreaming of climate and agricultural policies is long overdue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feminisms: Forwards, Backwards and Something in Between)
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