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Metals 2019, 9(3), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9030287

On the Feasibility of Tailoring Copper–Nickel Functionally Graded Materials Fabricated through Laser Metal Deposition

1
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409, USA
2
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 January 2019 / Revised: 12 February 2019 / Accepted: 25 February 2019 / Published: 3 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functionally Graded Materials)
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Abstract

In this study, pulse-width modulation of laser power was identified as a feasible means for varying the chemical gradient in copper–nickel-graded materials. Graded material deposits of 70 wt. %. copper-30 wt. %. nickel on 100 wt. %. nickel and vice versa were deposited and characterized. The 70/30 copper–nickel weight ratio in the feedstock powder was achieved through blending elemental copper and 96 wt. %. Ni–Delero-22 alloy. At the dissimilar material interface over the course of four layers, the duty cycle of power was ramped down from a high value to optimized deposition conditions. This change was theorized to influence the remelting and deposition height, and by extension, vary the chemistry gradient. X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis showed significant differences in the span and nature of chemistry gradient with varying duty cycles. These observations were also supported by the variation in microhardness values across the interface. The influence of different chemistry gradients on the tensile performance was observed through mini-tensile testing, coupled with Digital Image Correlation (DIC). The strain fields from the DIC analysis showed variations in strain for different chemistry gradients. The strength measurements from these specimens were also different for different chemistry gradients. The site of failure was observed to always occur within the copper-rich region. View Full-Text
Keywords: laser metal deposition; functionally graded materials; blended elemental powders; digital image correlation; miniature tensile testing; X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy laser metal deposition; functionally graded materials; blended elemental powders; digital image correlation; miniature tensile testing; X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Karnati, S.; Zhang, Y.; Liou, F.F.; Newkirk, J.W. On the Feasibility of Tailoring Copper–Nickel Functionally Graded Materials Fabricated through Laser Metal Deposition. Metals 2019, 9, 287.

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