Next Article in Journal
Correlation between Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior and Fracture Surface Roughness on Cold-Rolled Austenitic Stainless Steels in Gaseous Hydrogen
Next Article in Special Issue
Crystallographic Features of Microstructure in Maraging Steel Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting
Previous Article in Journal
Linking Ab Initio Data on Hydrogen and Carbon in Steel to Statistical and Continuum Descriptions
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Metals 2018, 8(4), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8040220

An Investigation of the Microstructure and Fatigue Behavior of Additively Manufactured AISI 316L Stainless Steel with Regard to the Influence of Heat Treatment

1
Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, TU Kaiserslautern, 67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany
2
State Materials Testing Institute Darmstadt (MPA), Chair and Institute for Materials Technology (IfW), Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64283 Darmstadt, Germany
3
Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Production Systems, TU Kaiserslautern, 67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Ferrous Materials)
  |  
PDF [13327 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]
  |  

Abstract

To exploit the whole potential of Additive Manufacturing, it is essential to investigate the complex relationships between Additive Manufacturing processes, the resulting microstructure, and mechanical properties of the materials and components. In the present work, Selective Laser Melted (SLM) (process category: powder bed fusion), Laser Deposition Welded (LDW) (process category: direct energy deposition) and, for comparison, Continuous Casted and then hot and cold drawn (CC) austenitic stainless steel AISI 316L blanks were investigated with regard to their microstructure and mechanical properties. To exclude the influence of surface topography and focus the investigation on the volume microstructure, the blanks were turned into final geometry of specimens. The additively manufactured (AM-) blanks were manufactured in both the horizontal and vertical building directions. In the horizontally built specimens, the layer planes are perpendicular and in vertical building direction, they are parallel to the load axis of the specimens. The materials from different manufacturing processes exhibit different chemical composition and hence, austenite stability. Additionally, all types of blanks were heat treated (2 h, 1070 °C, H2O) and the influence of the heat treatment on the properties of differently manufactured materials were investigated. From the cyclic deformation curves obtained in the load increase tests, the anisotropic fatigue behavior of the AM-specimens could be detected with only one specimen in each building direction for the different Additive Manufacturing processes, which could be confirmed by constant amplitude tests. The results showed higher fatigue strength for horizontally built specimens compared to the vertical building direction. Furthermore, the constant amplitude tests show that the austenite stability influences the fatigue behavior of differently manufactured 316L. Using load increase tests as an efficient rating method of the anisotropic fatigue behavior, the influence of the heat treatment on anisotropy could be determined with a small number of specimens. These investigations showed no significant influence of the heat treatment on the anisotropic behavior of the AM-specimens. View Full-Text
Keywords: additive manufacturing; cyclic deformation behavior; anisotropic fatigue behavior; load increase tests; selective laser melting; laser deposition welding; 316L; austenite stability additive manufacturing; cyclic deformation behavior; anisotropic fatigue behavior; load increase tests; selective laser melting; laser deposition welding; 316L; austenite stability
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Blinn, B.; Klein, M.; Gläßner, C.; Smaga, M.; Aurich, J.C.; Beck, T. An Investigation of the Microstructure and Fatigue Behavior of Additively Manufactured AISI 316L Stainless Steel with Regard to the Influence of Heat Treatment. Metals 2018, 8, 220.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Metals EISSN 2075-4701 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top