Next Article in Journal
On the Effect of Electron Beam Melted Ti6Al4V Part Orientations during Milling
Previous Article in Journal
Constitutive Equations for Describing the Warm and Hot Deformation Behavior of 20Cr2Ni4A Alloy Steel
Article

New Utilization of Specific Biomass: Lignin in the Iron Ore Sintering Process

1
Faculty of Materials, Metallurgy and Recycling, Technical University of Kosice, Letná 9, 04200 Košice, Slovakia
2
Department of Biophysics, University of Pavol Jozef Safarik Kosice, Jesenna 5, 041 54 Kosice, Slovakia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2020, 10(9), 1170; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10091170
Received: 11 August 2020 / Revised: 26 August 2020 / Accepted: 27 August 2020 / Published: 31 August 2020
The use of lignin can be one of the methods of coke powder substitution in the agglomeration process. This article specifies the material research of lignin and the technological and ecological parameters of the agglomeration process in laboratory conditions using biomass lignin. The methodology of the Raman and infrared spectroscopy, representing a new approach in the analysis and assessment for the purposes of material characteristics for the agglomeration process, was applied to study the structure of carbonaceous matter. The material research of lignin has determined that its calorific value corresponds to ca. 80% of the calorific value of coke powder, while its reactivity is higher than that of the coke. Although the substitution of coke powder using different types of waste biomass (e.g., wood sawdust) in the production of the agglomerate is limited to the maximum of 8–15%, in case of lignin, more than 20% can be substituted, while the standard properties of the produced agglomerate are maintained. The lower emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides as well as the reduction of carbon footprint in the agglomeration process as a result of the so-called zero CO2 balance in the formation and processing of the biomass represent its positive aspects. Based on the laboratory research of lignin, up to a 50% substitution of coke powder with this type of biomass can be predicted for the technology of agglomerate production in real operation. View Full-Text
Keywords: agglomerate; sintering; carbon fuel; coke breeze; biomass; lignin; production; emissions agglomerate; sintering; carbon fuel; coke breeze; biomass; lignin; production; emissions
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Findorák, R.; Legemza, J.; Fröhlichová, M.; Fabriciová, G.; Džupková, M. New Utilization of Specific Biomass: Lignin in the Iron Ore Sintering Process. Metals 2020, 10, 1170. https://doi.org/10.3390/met10091170

AMA Style

Findorák R, Legemza J, Fröhlichová M, Fabriciová G, Džupková M. New Utilization of Specific Biomass: Lignin in the Iron Ore Sintering Process. Metals. 2020; 10(9):1170. https://doi.org/10.3390/met10091170

Chicago/Turabian Style

Findorák, Róbert, Jaroslav Legemza, Mária Fröhlichová, Gabriela Fabriciová, and Martina Džupková. 2020. "New Utilization of Specific Biomass: Lignin in the Iron Ore Sintering Process" Metals 10, no. 9: 1170. https://doi.org/10.3390/met10091170

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop