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The Placenta as a Target of Epigenetic Alterations in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Potential Implications for the Offspring

Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, Mazatlán, Sinaloa 82112, Mexico
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Academic Editor: Assam El-Osta
Epigenomes 2021, 5(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/epigenomes5020013
Received: 26 March 2021 / Revised: 23 April 2021 / Accepted: 26 April 2021 / Published: 10 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Epigenetic Mechanisms in Diabetes Research)
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a pregnancy complication first detected in the second or third trimester in women that did not show evident glucose intolerance or diabetes before gestation. In 2019, the International Diabetes Federation reported that 15.8% of live births were affected by hyperglycemia during pregnancy, of which 83.6% were due to gestational diabetes mellitus, 8.5% were due to diabetes first detected in pregnancy, and 7.9% were due to diabetes detected before pregnancy. GDM increases the susceptibility to developing chronic diseases for both the mother and the baby later in life. Under GDM conditions, the intrauterine environment becomes hyperglycemic, while also showing high concentrations of fatty acids and proinflammatory cytokines, producing morphological, structural, and molecular modifications in the placenta, affecting its function; these alterations may predispose the baby to disease in adult life. Molecular alterations include epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA and RNA methylation, chromatin remodeling, histone modifications, and expression of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). The placenta is a unique organ that originates only in pregnancy, and its main function is communication between the mother and the fetus, ensuring healthy development. Thus, this review provides up-to-date information regarding two of the best-documented (epigenetic) mechanisms (DNA methylation and miRNA expression) altered in the human placenta under GDM conditions, as well as potential implications for the offspring. View Full-Text
Keywords: epigenetic inheritance; placental alterations; gestational diabetes mellitus; placental epigenetic alterations epigenetic inheritance; placental alterations; gestational diabetes mellitus; placental epigenetic alterations
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lizárraga, D.; García-Gasca, A. The Placenta as a Target of Epigenetic Alterations in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Potential Implications for the Offspring. Epigenomes 2021, 5, 13. https://doi.org/10.3390/epigenomes5020013

AMA Style

Lizárraga D, García-Gasca A. The Placenta as a Target of Epigenetic Alterations in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Potential Implications for the Offspring. Epigenomes. 2021; 5(2):13. https://doi.org/10.3390/epigenomes5020013

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lizárraga, Dennise, and Alejandra García-Gasca. 2021. "The Placenta as a Target of Epigenetic Alterations in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Potential Implications for the Offspring" Epigenomes 5, no. 2: 13. https://doi.org/10.3390/epigenomes5020013

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