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Article

Genetic Relationship of Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) Populations That Invaded Africa and Asia

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Department of Applied Biosciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
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Department of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin 240212, Nigeria
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Department of Plants Protection, Ministry of Agriculture, Kinshasa 8722, Democratic Republic of the Congo
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Ministry of Agriculture Animal Industry and Fisheries, Entebbe P.O. Box 102, Uganda
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National Biological Control, Kibaha 30031, Tanzania
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Department of Applied Sciences, Mutare Polytechnic College, Mutare P.O. Box 640, Zimbabwe
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Center for Industrial Entomology, Hariharbhawan, Lalitpur 44700, Nepal
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Department of Entomology, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali 8602, Bangladesh
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Plant Protection Research Institute, Ha Noi 04, Vietnam
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Jejudo Agricultural Research and Extension Services, Jejudo 63556, Korea
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College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, Korea
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Xenotype, Daejeon 34912, Korea
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Plant Quarantine Technology Center, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon 39660, Korea
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Institute of Plant Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Shimat V. Joseph, Nik G. Wiman and Jhalendra Rijal
Insects 2021, 12(5), 439; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12050439
Received: 14 March 2021 / Revised: 25 April 2021 / Accepted: 11 May 2021 / Published: 12 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Invasive Insect Species Management)
Since 2016, the fall armyworm, an important economic pest native to tropical and subtropical regions of the Western Hemisphere, has invaded Africa and further spread rapidly into most Asian countries. The fall armyworm is highly polyphagous, but two of its major strains, the corn and the rice strains, cause severe damage in the Western Hemisphere. However, the invaded populations in Africa and Asia mostly infested the corn fields. Studies on the genetic identity of the species using two molecular markers, one nuclear gene and one mitochondrial gene, showed that the major genetic group is a heterogeneous hybrid of males from the corn strain and females from the rice strain. Moreover, a minor group of homogenous individuals from the corn strain but no homogenous individuals from the rice strain were also detected. A geographic distribution analysis at the subpopulation level indicated similar genetic diversity in Africa and Asia, suggesting fall armyworm in Africa spread into Asia without significant genetic change.
The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, is an important agricultural pest native to tropical and subtropical regions of the Western Hemisphere, and has invaded Africa and further spread into most countries of Asia within two years. Here, we analyzed the genetic variation of invaded populations by comparing the nucleotide sequences of two genes: the nuclear Z-chromosome linked gene triose phosphate isomerase (Tpi) and the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) of 27 specimens collected in Africa (DR Congo, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zimbabwe) and Asia (Bangladesh, Korea, Nepal, and Vietnam). The results revealed that 25 specimens were from a heterogeneous hybrid (Tpi-corn strain and COI-rice strain; Tpi-C/COI-R) of the corn strain male and rice strain female, but two specimens were from a homogenous corn strain (Tpi-corn strain and COI-corn strain; Tpi-C/COI-C). The further analysis of the fourth exon and the fourth intron sequences of the Tpi gene identified at least four subgroups of the corn strain. These four genetic subgroups were identified in Africa and Asia, suggesting no significant genetic change due to the rapid migration within two years. Our study provides essential information for understanding the genetic diversity of fall armyworm in new habitats. View Full-Text
Keywords: Spodoptera frugiperda; invasive pest; corn; invasion; COI; Tpi gene Spodoptera frugiperda; invasive pest; corn; invasion; COI; Tpi gene
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MDPI and ACS Style

Acharya, R.; Akintola, A.A.; Malekera, M.J.; Kamulegeya, P.; Nyakunga, K.B.; Mutimbu, M.K.; Shrestha, Y.K.; Hemayet, J.S.M.; Hoat, T.X.; Dao, H.T.; Park, J.-H.; Kim, I.; Nam, M.; Lee, S.-J.; Kim, S.-M.; Hwang, H.-S.; Lee, K.-Y. Genetic Relationship of Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) Populations That Invaded Africa and Asia. Insects 2021, 12, 439. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12050439

AMA Style

Acharya R, Akintola AA, Malekera MJ, Kamulegeya P, Nyakunga KB, Mutimbu MK, Shrestha YK, Hemayet JSM, Hoat TX, Dao HT, Park J-H, Kim I, Nam M, Lee S-J, Kim S-M, Hwang H-S, Lee K-Y. Genetic Relationship of Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) Populations That Invaded Africa and Asia. Insects. 2021; 12(5):439. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12050439

Chicago/Turabian Style

Acharya, Rajendra, Ashraf A. Akintola, Matabaro J. Malekera, Patrick Kamulegeya, Keneth B. Nyakunga, Munyaradzi K. Mutimbu, Yam K. Shrestha, Jahan S.M. Hemayet, Trinh X. Hoat, Hang T. Dao, Jeong-Hoon Park, Iksoo Kim, Moon Nam, Sung-Jin Lee, Sang-Mok Kim, Hwal-Su Hwang, and Kyeong-Yeoll Lee. 2021. "Genetic Relationship of Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) Populations That Invaded Africa and Asia" Insects 12, no. 5: 439. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12050439

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