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Open AccessArticle

Molecular Hydrogen Microstructures in Planetary Nebulae

Observatório do Valongo, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 20080-090 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Instituto de Matemática, Estatística e Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, 96203-900 Rio Grande, Brazil
Observatório Nacional/MCTIC, Rua Gen. José Cristino, 77, 20921-400 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Instituto de Astronomía y Meteorología, CUCEI, Guadalajara 44130, Jalisco, Mexico
Instituto de Física e Química, Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Av. BPS 1303, Pinheirinho, 37500-903 Itajubá, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Galaxies 2020, 8(2), 30;
Received: 4 March 2020 / Revised: 23 March 2020 / Accepted: 26 March 2020 / Published: 1 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplans II: Workshop for Planetary Nebula Observations)
Molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) emission is commonly detected in planetary nebulae (PNe), specially in objects with bipolar morphologies. New studies showed that H 2 gas is also packed in microstructures embedded in PNe of any morphological type. Despite the presence of H 2 in cometary knots being known for years, only in the last five years, much deeper imagery of PNe have revealed that H 2 also exists in other types of low-ionisation microstructures (LISs). Significant differences are found between the host PNe of cometary knots and other types of LISs, such as nebula age, central star temperature (evolutionary stage) and the absolute sizes of the microstructure itself. View Full-Text
Keywords: astrochemistry; planetary nebulae: NGC 7009, NGC 6543, K 4-47, NGC 7662, Hu 1-2, Hb 12 astrochemistry; planetary nebulae: NGC 7009, NGC 6543, K 4-47, NGC 7662, Hu 1-2, Hb 12
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Akras, S.; R. Gonçalves, D.; Ramos-Larios, G.; Aleman, I. Molecular Hydrogen Microstructures in Planetary Nebulae. Galaxies 2020, 8, 30.

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