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Article

Depression Levels Influence the Rate of Asthma Exacerbations in Females

1
Department of Respiratory Medicine, University of Athens Medical School, “Sotiria” Chest Diseases Hospital, 11527 Athens, Greece
2
Department of Respiratory Medicine, University of Athens Medical School, ‘Attikon’ Hospital, 11527 Athens, Greece
3
Department of Critical Care and Pulmonary Services, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Evangelismos Hospital, 11527 Athens, Greece
4
Department of Social and Educational Policy, University of Peloponnese, 20100 Corinth, Greece
5
Department of Pulmonary, “Sotiria” Chest Diseases Hospital, 11527 Athens, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paraskevi Katsaounou
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(6), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11060586
Received: 23 May 2021 / Revised: 8 June 2021 / Accepted: 15 June 2021 / Published: 21 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine in Bronchial Asthma)
Background: Anxiety and depression are common psychological disturbances among asthmatic patients. The aim of the present study is the assessment of anxiety and depression in asthmatic patients and their correlation with symptoms control level and number of exacerbations per year. Methods: One hundred patients with asthma diagnosis, according to the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA), aged > 18 years old, having a stable disease, were included. Emotional status was evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS). Patients were followed up for a year to assess the number and severity of exacerbations. Results: Most of our patients were female (58%), middle-aged (mean = 54 ± 13), and married (81%), with low frequency of smoking habits (smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers were 26%, 30% and 37%, respectively) and low levels of both anxiety and depression [median (interquartile range (IQR)) = 4(2) and median (IQR) = 4(2), respectively]. At the low and moderate level of the depression subscale, female patients experienced asthma exacerbations more frequently compared to male patients (adjusted Incidence Rate Ratio (aIRR) = 4.30; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.94–9.53 and aIRR = 1.82; 95% CI: 1.07–3.13, respectively). Conclusions. Clinicians should evaluate asthma patients for depression, as gender differentially influences outcomes among those with low and moderate levels of depression, with female asthmatics presenting more frequent exacerbations. View Full-Text
Keywords: asthma; control; exacerbations; depression; anxiety; gender asthma; control; exacerbations; depression; anxiety; gender
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MDPI and ACS Style

Anastasia, P.; Eleni, T.; Eleftheria, M.; Xenia, N.; Eygenia, P.; Kyriakos, S.; Katerina, D.; Petros, B.; Stelios, L.; Georgios, H. Depression Levels Influence the Rate of Asthma Exacerbations in Females. J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11, 586. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11060586

AMA Style

Anastasia P, Eleni T, Eleftheria M, Xenia N, Eygenia P, Kyriakos S, Katerina D, Petros B, Stelios L, Georgios H. Depression Levels Influence the Rate of Asthma Exacerbations in Females. Journal of Personalized Medicine. 2021; 11(6):586. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11060586

Chicago/Turabian Style

Anastasia, Papaporfyriou, Tseliou Eleni, Mizi Eleftheria, Ntontsi Xenia, Papathanasiou Eygenia, Souliotis Kyriakos, Dimakou Katerina, Bakakos Petros, Loukides Stelios, and Hillas Georgios. 2021. "Depression Levels Influence the Rate of Asthma Exacerbations in Females" Journal of Personalized Medicine 11, no. 6: 586. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11060586

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