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Article

Hormonal Contraceptive Treatment May Reduce the Risk of Fibromyalgia in Women with Dysmenorrhea: A Cohort Study

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Graduate Institute of Acupuncture Science, China Medical University, Taichung 404333, Taiwan
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Management Office for Health Data, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 404332, Taiwan
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Department of Medical Imaging, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 404332, Taiwan
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School of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 404333, Taiwan
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Center of Augmented Intelligence in Healthcare, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 404332, Taiwan
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Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, Asia University, Taichung 413305, Taiwan
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Traditional Chinese Medicine Research Center, China Medical University, Taichung 404333, Taiwan
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Department of Photonics and Communication Engineering, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Pers. Med. 2020, 10(4), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm10040280
Received: 17 November 2020 / Revised: 10 December 2020 / Accepted: 11 December 2020 / Published: 14 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Pain)
Dysmenorrhea is the most common gynecological disorder for women in the reproductive age. Study has indicated that dysmenorrhea might be a general risk factor of chronic pelvic pain and even chronic non-pelvic pain, such as fibromyalgia. We used the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 from the Taiwan National Health Research Institutes Database to investigate whether women with dysmenorrhea have a higher risk of fibromyalgia and whether treatment of dysmenorrhea reduced the risk of fibromyalgia. The dysmenorrhea cohort was matched with a non-dysmenorrhea cohort at a 1:1 ratio based on gender, age, and the year of entry study by frequency matching. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to assess the risk of fibromyalgia, with controlling for potential confounding variables such as age, comorbidities, and medication use. After controlling confounding variables, results revealed that women with dysmenorrhea have a significantly higher risk of fibromyalgia than women without dysmenorrhea. However, only treatment of dysmenorrhea with hormonal contraceptives reduce the risk of fibromyalgia. These results indicated that dysmenorrhea may be a risk factor of fibromyalgia, whereas personalized medicine for treatment of dysmenorrhea may be the key to reduce the risk of fibromyalgia. Future studies are needed to identify the causes and prevention strategies in detail. View Full-Text
Keywords: dysmenorrhea; fibromyalgia; risk factor; hormonal contraceptives dysmenorrhea; fibromyalgia; risk factor; hormonal contraceptives
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tu, C.-H.; Lin, C.-L.; Yang, S.-T.; Shen, W.-C.; Chen, Y.-H. Hormonal Contraceptive Treatment May Reduce the Risk of Fibromyalgia in Women with Dysmenorrhea: A Cohort Study. J. Pers. Med. 2020, 10, 280. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm10040280

AMA Style

Tu C-H, Lin C-L, Yang S-T, Shen W-C, Chen Y-H. Hormonal Contraceptive Treatment May Reduce the Risk of Fibromyalgia in Women with Dysmenorrhea: A Cohort Study. Journal of Personalized Medicine. 2020; 10(4):280. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm10040280

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tu, Cheng-Hao, Cheng-Li Lin, Su-Tso Yang, Wei-Chih Shen, and Yi-Hung Chen. 2020. "Hormonal Contraceptive Treatment May Reduce the Risk of Fibromyalgia in Women with Dysmenorrhea: A Cohort Study" Journal of Personalized Medicine 10, no. 4: 280. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm10040280

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