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Open AccessReview

Salivary IL-8, IL-6 and TNF-α as Potential Diagnostic Biomarkers for Oral Cancer

1
Department of Oral Medicine, Islamabad Dental Hospital (IDH), Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
2
Department of Prosthodontics and Implantology, College of Dentistry, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia
3
Department of Oral Pathology, College of Dentistry, Baqai University, Super Highway, P.O. Box 2407, Karachi 74600, Pakistan
4
Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Dar-Al-Uloom University, Riyadh 13314, Saudi Arabia
5
Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery and Oral Medicine, Islamabad Dental Hospital (IDH), Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
6
Department of Periodontology, Fatima Jinnah Dental College, Karachi 74000, Pakistan
7
Department of Dental Materials, College of Dentistry, Al-Taibah University, Madinah Munawwarah 41331, Saudi Arabia
8
Department of Dental Materials, Islamic International Dental College, Riphah International University, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diagnostics 2017, 7(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics7020021
Received: 7 March 2017 / Revised: 29 March 2017 / Accepted: 5 April 2017 / Published: 9 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Fluid-Based Molecular Diagnostics)
Saliva has been useful as a liquid biopsy for the diagnosis of various oral or systemic diseases, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is no exception. While its early detection and prevention is important, salivary cytokines expression, specifically of Interleukin-8 (IL-8), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), does contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer and these cytokines serve as potential biomarkers. Their excessive production plays a role in cancer progression and establishment of angiogenesis. However, other inflammatory or immunological conditions may affect the levels of cytokines in saliva. This article reviews the expression of levels of specific cytokines i.e., IL-8, IL-6 and TNF-α, their signaling pathways in the development of oral cancer, and how they are essential for the diagnosis of OSCC and updates related to it. Apart from serum, the saliva-based test can be a cost-effective tool in the follow-up and diagnosis of OSCC. Moreover, large-scale investigations are still needed for the validation of salivary cytokines. View Full-Text
Keywords: biopsy; saliva; biomarker; interleukin-8; interleukin-6; tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); cancer and salivaomics biopsy; saliva; biomarker; interleukin-8; interleukin-6; tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); cancer and salivaomics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sahibzada, H.A.; Khurshid, Z.; Khan, R.S.; Naseem, M.; Siddique, K.M.; Mali, M.; Zafar, M.S. Salivary IL-8, IL-6 and TNF-α as Potential Diagnostic Biomarkers for Oral Cancer. Diagnostics 2017, 7, 21.

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