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Article

Vitamin D and Folate as Predictors of MMSE in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Machine Learning Analysis

1
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy
2
Ospedale Policlinico San Martino IRCCS, 16132 Genoa, Italy
3
Clinical Physiology Institute, National Research Council of Italy (IFC-CNR), 56124 Pisa, Italy
4
School and Operative Unit of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, 98125 Messina, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Benedetta Nacmias
Diagnostics 2021, 11(6), 940; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11060940
Received: 6 May 2021 / Revised: 21 May 2021 / Accepted: 23 May 2021 / Published: 24 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Management of Alzheimer's Disease)
Vitamin D (VD) and micronutrients, including folic acid, are able to modulate both the innate and the adaptive immune responses. Low VD and folic acid levels appear to promote cognitive decline as in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A machine learning approach was applied to analyze the impact of various compounds, drawn from the blood of AD patients, including VD and folic acid levels, on the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) in a cohort of 108 patients with AD. The first analysis was aimed at predicting the MMSE at recruitment, whereas a second investigation sought to predict the MMSE after a 4 year follow-up. The simultaneous presence of low levels of VD and folic acid allow to predict MMSE, suggestive of poorer cognitive function. Such results suggest that the low levels of VD and folic acid could be associated with more severe cases of cognitive impairment in AD. It could be hypothesized that simultaneous supplementation of VD and folic acid could slow down the progression of cerebral degeneration at least in a subset of AD individuals. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; biomarkers; folate; machine learning; Vitamin D Alzheimer’s disease; biomarkers; folate; machine learning; Vitamin D
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MDPI and ACS Style

Murdaca, G.; Banchero, S.; Tonacci, A.; Nencioni, A.; Monacelli, F.; Gangemi, S. Vitamin D and Folate as Predictors of MMSE in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Machine Learning Analysis. Diagnostics 2021, 11, 940. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11060940

AMA Style

Murdaca G, Banchero S, Tonacci A, Nencioni A, Monacelli F, Gangemi S. Vitamin D and Folate as Predictors of MMSE in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Machine Learning Analysis. Diagnostics. 2021; 11(6):940. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11060940

Chicago/Turabian Style

Murdaca, Giuseppe, Sara Banchero, Alessandro Tonacci, Alessio Nencioni, Fiammetta Monacelli, and Sebastiano Gangemi. 2021. "Vitamin D and Folate as Predictors of MMSE in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Machine Learning Analysis" Diagnostics 11, no. 6: 940. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11060940

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