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Open AccessArticle

Evidence of Hydrocarbon-Rich Fluid Interaction with Clays: Clay Mineralogy and Boron Isotope Data from Gulf of Cádiz Mud Volcano Sediments

1
Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Universidad de Cádiz, Av. República Saharaui s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Spain
2
Instituto Geológico y Minero de España, Rios Rosas, 23, 28003 Madrid, Spain
3
School of Earth & Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404, USA
4
Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, Av. De las Palmeras, 4, 18100 Granada, Spain
5
Universidad de Granada-CSIC, Av. Fuentenueva s/n, 18002 Granada, Spain
6
Centro de Asistencia a la Investigación de Técnicas Geológicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Jose Antonio Novais 2, 28040 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2020, 10(8), 651; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10080651
Received: 25 May 2020 / Revised: 14 July 2020 / Accepted: 17 July 2020 / Published: 23 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Diagenesis to Low-Grade Metamorphism)
Clay dehydration at great depth generates fluids and overpressures in organic-rich sediments that can release isotopically light boron from mature organic matter, producing 10B-rich fluids. The B can be incorporated into the tetrahedral sites of authigenic illite during the illitization of smectite. Therefore, the crystal-chemical and geochemical characterization of illite, smectite or interlayered illite–smectite clay minerals can be an indicator of depth (temperature) and reactions with the basin fluids. The aim of this study was to determine the detailed clay mineralogy, B-content and isotopic composition in illite–smectite rich samples of mud volcanoes from the Gulf of Cádiz, in order to evaluate interactions of hydrocarbon-rich fluids with clays. Molecular modeling of the illite structure was performed, using electron density functional theory (DFT) methods to examine the phenomenon of B incorporation into illite at the atomic level. We found that it is energetically preferable for B to reside in the tetrahedral sites replacing Si atoms than in the interlayer of expandable clays. The B abundances in this study are high and consistent with previous results of B data on interstitial fluids, suggesting that hydrocarbon-related fluids approaching temperatures of methane generation (150 °C) are the likely source of B-rich illite in the studied samples. View Full-Text
Keywords: mud volcano; B isotopes; illite–smectite; molecular modelling fluids; Gulf of Cádiz; hydrocarbons mud volcano; B isotopes; illite–smectite; molecular modelling fluids; Gulf of Cádiz; hydrocarbons
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MDPI and ACS Style

Martos-Villa, R.; Mata, M.P.; Williams, L.B.; Nieto, F.; Arroyo Rey, X.; Sainz-Díaz, C.I. Evidence of Hydrocarbon-Rich Fluid Interaction with Clays: Clay Mineralogy and Boron Isotope Data from Gulf of Cádiz Mud Volcano Sediments. Minerals 2020, 10, 651. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10080651

AMA Style

Martos-Villa R, Mata MP, Williams LB, Nieto F, Arroyo Rey X, Sainz-Díaz CI. Evidence of Hydrocarbon-Rich Fluid Interaction with Clays: Clay Mineralogy and Boron Isotope Data from Gulf of Cádiz Mud Volcano Sediments. Minerals. 2020; 10(8):651. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10080651

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martos-Villa, Rubén; Mata, M. P.; Williams, Lynda B.; Nieto, Fernando; Arroyo Rey, Xabier; Sainz-Díaz, C. I. 2020. "Evidence of Hydrocarbon-Rich Fluid Interaction with Clays: Clay Mineralogy and Boron Isotope Data from Gulf of Cádiz Mud Volcano Sediments" Minerals 10, no. 8: 651. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10080651

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