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Open AccessArticle

Optimization of the Mix Formulation of Geopolymer Using Nickel-Laterite Mine Waste and Coal Fly Ash

1
Department of Chemical Engineering, De La Salle University, Manila 1004, Philippines
2
Department of Materials and Resources Engineering and Technology, MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan 9200, Philippines
3
Department of Transdisciplinary Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550, Japan
4
Center for Engineering and Sustainable Development Research, De La Salle University, Manila 1004, Philippines
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2020, 10(12), 1144; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10121144
Received: 13 November 2020 / Revised: 16 December 2020 / Accepted: 17 December 2020 / Published: 21 December 2020
Geopolymer cement has been popularly studied nowadays compared to ordinary Portland cement because it demonstrated superior environmental advantages due to its lower carbon emissions and waste material utilization. This paper focuses on the formulation of geopolymer cement from nickel–laterite mine waste (NMW) and coal fly ash (CFA) as geopolymer precursors, and sodium hydroxide (SH), and sodium silicate (SS) as alkali activators. Different mix formulations of raw materials are prepared to produce a geopolymer based on an I-optimal design and obtained different compressive strengths. A mixed formulation of 50% NMW and 50% CFA, SH-to-SS ratio of 0.5, and an activator-to-precursor ratio of 0.429 yielded the highest 28 d unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of 22.10 ± 5.40 MPa. Furthermore, using an optimized formulation of 50.12% NMW, SH-to-SS ratio of 0.516, and an activator-to-precursor ratio of 0.428, a UCS value of 36.30 ± 3.60 MPa was obtained. The result implies that the synthesized geopolymer material can be potentially used for concrete structures and pavers, pedestrian pavers, light traffic pavers, and plain concrete. View Full-Text
Keywords: geopolymer; laterite; alkali-activated; alumino-silicates; I-optimal; response surface methodology; optimization; mine waste geopolymer; laterite; alkali-activated; alumino-silicates; I-optimal; response surface methodology; optimization; mine waste
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MDPI and ACS Style

Longos, A., Jr.; Tigue, A.A.; Dollente, I.J.; Malenab, R.A.; Bernardo-Arugay, I.; Hinode, H.; Kurniawan, W.; Promentilla, M.A. Optimization of the Mix Formulation of Geopolymer Using Nickel-Laterite Mine Waste and Coal Fly Ash. Minerals 2020, 10, 1144. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10121144

AMA Style

Longos A Jr., Tigue AA, Dollente IJ, Malenab RA, Bernardo-Arugay I, Hinode H, Kurniawan W, Promentilla MA. Optimization of the Mix Formulation of Geopolymer Using Nickel-Laterite Mine Waste and Coal Fly Ash. Minerals. 2020; 10(12):1144. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10121144

Chicago/Turabian Style

Longos, Alberto, Jr.; Tigue, April A.; Dollente, Ithan J.; Malenab, Roy A.; Bernardo-Arugay, Ivyleen; Hinode, Hirofumi; Kurniawan, Winarto; Promentilla, Michael A. 2020. "Optimization of the Mix Formulation of Geopolymer Using Nickel-Laterite Mine Waste and Coal Fly Ash" Minerals 10, no. 12: 1144. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10121144

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