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Symmetry 2019, 11(2), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11020211

A Description of Three-Dimensional Shape of the Posterior Torso Comparing Those with and without Scoliosis

1
Department of Anatomy, Institute of Clinical Science, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
2
The Royal Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham B31 2AP, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 November 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 6 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
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Abstract

Scoliosis results in a 3D asymmetry of the spine and torso. It is not clear what the variability in 3D shape is in a non-scoliotic population, how much that is altered by scoliosis and what surgery does to that. This study is a 3D analysis of the shape of the torso in a cohort of non-scoliotic children that is then compared with a cohort of those with scoliosis both pre- and post-operatively. Procrustes analysis is used to examine the mean 3D shape. There is variability in shape in the non-scoliotic cohort. Scoliosis increases this asymmetry, particularly around the most prominent areas of the torso. Surgery alters the torso asymmetry but increases the difference in height between the right and the left with regard to the most prominent points on the torso. There is a degree of asymmetry seen in a non-scoliotic cohort of children. Scoliosis increases that asymmetry. Surgery alters the asymmetry but causes an increase in some of the 3D elements of the most prominent areas of the torso. View Full-Text
Keywords: scoliosis: asymmetry; rib hump; Procrustes analysis; non-scoliotic; surface topography; ISIS2 scoliosis: asymmetry; rib hump; Procrustes analysis; non-scoliotic; surface topography; ISIS2
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Gardner, A.; Berryman, F.; Pynsent, P. A Description of Three-Dimensional Shape of the Posterior Torso Comparing Those with and without Scoliosis. Symmetry 2019, 11, 211.

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