# A Description of Three-Dimensional Shape of the Posterior Torso Comparing Those with and without Scoliosis

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

## 3. Results

^{2}(SD 3.2, range 13.5 to 31.6) for males and mean 19.7 kg/m

^{2}(SD 2.9, range 14.0 to 33.1) for females. In the pre-operative cohort, males had a mean BMI of 20.3 kg/m

^{2}(SD 4.2, range 15.6 to 30.3), and females had a mean BMI of 20.7 kg/m

^{2}(SD 4.2, range 14.1 to 41.9). There were 248 individuals in the main thoracic group and 41 in the main thoracolumbar group (Table 3). The mean time from the pre-operative scan to surgery was 413 days (SD 304, range 1 to 2057), and the mean time from surgery to the post-operative scan was 263 days (SD 270, range 34 to 1984).

## 4. Discussion

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**A diagram showing the anatomical points identified as the landmarks around the edge of the torso together with the axes.

**Figure 2.**The raw data (

**A**) and the translated, rotated and scaled data (

**B**) of the non-scoliotic cohort with a main thoracic curve pattern. In Figure 2A, all images have been manipulated such that the VP point is located at coordinates 0,0,0 (marked).

**Figure 3.**Male (blue) and female (pink) mean shapes following ordinary Procrustes analysis (OPA) in the main thoracic curve pattern of the non-scoliotic cohort.

**Figure 4.**The principal component analysis (PCA) plots for the nonscoliotic (

**A**), pre-operative (

**B**) and post-operative (

**C**) for the convex to the right main thoracic group. Black equals the vector of the first principal component (PC1), red equals PC2 and green equals PC3.

**Figure 5.**The PCA plots for the non-scoliotic (

**A**), pre-operative (

**B**) and post-operative (

**C**) for the convex to the left main thoracolumbar group. The colours are as for Figure 4.

**Figure 6.**The mean shape plots of the non-scoliotic (red), pre-operative (green) and post-operative (blue) data for the convex to the right main thoracic curve type. (

**A**) Posterior view, (

**B**) Adams forward bend view, (

**C**) left rotated view, (

**D**) right rotated view.

**Figure 7.**The mean shape plots of the non-scoliotic (red), pre-operative (green) and post-operative (blue) data for the convex to the left main thoracolumbar curve type. (

**A**) Posterior view, (

**B**) Adams forward bend view, (

**C**) left rotated view, (

**D**) right rotated view.

**Table 1.**The definitions of the anatomical points shown in Figure 1.

Anatomical Point | Definition |
---|---|

Vertebra prominens (VP) | Palpable spinous process at superior end of the thoracic spine |

Shoulder points | Superior aspect of shoulder girdle vertically above axillary point on the left and right sides of the body |

Axilla points | Superior point of posterior axillary fold on the left and right sides of the body |

Most prominent points over the torso | The most prominent point over the torso on the left and right sides of the body |

Waist points | Most indrawn point of the waist crease on the left and right sides of the body |

Sacrum | Distal end of the spine |

Sex | Number of Main Thoracic Curve Type | Number of Main Thoracolumbar Curve Type |
---|---|---|

Male | 305 | 179 |

Female | 174 | 128 |

Sex | Number of Main Thoracic Curve Type | Number of Main Thoracolumbar Curve Type |
---|---|---|

Male | 35 (mean age 14.5 years, SD 1.6, range 9.9 to 17.9) | 4 (mean age 15.4 years, SD 0.9, range 14.3 to 16.5) |

Female | 213 (mean age 13.7 years, SD 1.5, range 10.2 to 17.7) | 37 (mean age 14.3 years, SD 1.8, range 10.5 to 17.0) |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Gardner, A.; Berryman, F.; Pynsent, P.
A Description of Three-Dimensional Shape of the Posterior Torso Comparing Those with and without Scoliosis. *Symmetry* **2019**, *11*, 211.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11020211

**AMA Style**

Gardner A, Berryman F, Pynsent P.
A Description of Three-Dimensional Shape of the Posterior Torso Comparing Those with and without Scoliosis. *Symmetry*. 2019; 11(2):211.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11020211

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Gardner, Adrian, Fiona Berryman, and Paul Pynsent.
2019. "A Description of Three-Dimensional Shape of the Posterior Torso Comparing Those with and without Scoliosis" *Symmetry* 11, no. 2: 211.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11020211