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Water 2017, 9(8), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9080576

Carbon Dioxide Reduction Targets of Hot Water Showers for People in Hong Kong

Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China
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Received: 19 June 2017 / Revised: 24 July 2017 / Accepted: 31 July 2017 / Published: 2 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Supply and Drainage for Sustainable Built Environment)
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Abstract

Improving water and energy efficiency in buildings is one of the best ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This study examines various energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction measures, including the use of water efficient showerheads and shower drain water heat recovery, in order to distinguish the significance of user influence on the water usage of a shower. The probability of taking a hot shower and the number of showers taken by an occupant per day, which can be evaluated from open literature data, are used as the parameters of user responses to water conservation measures in this study. A Monte Carlo model of water consumption and CO2 reduction for showering is adopted to determine the contributions of user responses. The results demonstrate that the influence of users on CO2 reduction is significant and compatible to the influence of water efficient showerheads. This study can be used as a reference to enhance water and energy incentives and to facilitate continuous improvement in building water systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change; water efficiency; showering; carbon dioxide emission; behavioural response climate change; water efficiency; showering; carbon dioxide emission; behavioural response
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Wong, L.-T.; Mui, K.-W.; Zhou, Y. Carbon Dioxide Reduction Targets of Hot Water Showers for People in Hong Kong. Water 2017, 9, 576.

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