Next Article in Journal
Emergence of the Coherent Structure of Liquid Water
Previous Article in Journal
Disinfection By-Products and Human Health. Edited by Steve E. Hrudey and Jeffrey W.A. Charrois, IWA Publishing, 2012; 304 pages. Price: US178.20/£ 99.00 ISBN 978–1–843–39519–5
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2012, 4(2), 496-509;

Concentration of Selected Anions in Bottled Water in the United Arab Emirates

Department of Biology, Chemistry and Environmental Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, American University of Sharjah, P.O. Box 26666, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
Received: 24 February 2012 / Revised: 15 May 2012 / Accepted: 18 May 2012 / Published: 29 May 2012
Full-Text   |   PDF [416 KB, uploaded 9 June 2015]   |  


Several studies have shown concern over nitrate and nitrite contamination of prepared infant formula used by infants less than six months old, as it may lead to methemoglobinemia and death. One possible source of contamination is through the use of improperly treated drinking water. Contamination of water could result from fertilizers and manure runoff, not fully treated and released human and industrial waste, or from disinfection processes. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), bottled water is the major source of drinking water and may be used for the preparation of infant formula. Therefore, in this study, several bottled water brands that are sold on the UAE market, and could be used for preparation of infant formula, were tested for nitrate and nitrite and other anions to show their compatibility with the permissible levels of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), United States Food and Drug Administration/Code of Federal Regulations (U.S. FDA/CFR), and other international organizations. All the bottled water samples demonstrated nitrate, nitrite, and other anions levels below the permissible levels accepted by U.S. EPA, U.S. FDA/CFR, and other international organizations, except for one sample that showed nitrite levels exceeding the European Commission and Drinking Water Directive (EC/DWD) permissible levels. Such study sheds light on the quality of bottled water sold not only in the UAE and the region, but also in other countries, such as France, since some of them are imported. In addition, the results shed light on the effectiveness of the treatment processes and possible sources of infant formula contamination that can affect the health of infants. View Full-Text
Keywords: nitrate; nitrite; bottled water; infant formula; contamination nitrate; nitrite; bottled water; infant formula; contamination

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Abouleish, M.Y.Z. Concentration of Selected Anions in Bottled Water in the United Arab Emirates. Water 2012, 4, 496-509.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top