# Review of Experimental Investigations of Dam-Break Flows over Fixed Bottom

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. State of the Art Experimental Investigations of Dam-Break Flows

(1) Reference | (2) Dam-Break Type | (3) Setup Characteristics ^{1} | (4) Initial Conditions ^{2} | (5) Breach Width | (6) Laboratory | (7) Year | (8) Measured Data | (9) Measuring Technique ^{3} | (10) Data ^{4} | (11) Numerical Simulation ^{5} |
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Schoklitsch [19] | Total; dry bottom | Rectangular channel Exp. (a) L = 26 m, W = 0.6 m Exp. (b) L = 150 m, W = 1.3 m Lr > 8 m, S = 0; smooth | (a) h_{u} < 0.25 m(b) h _{u} < 1 m | (a) 0.6 m (b) 1.3 m | Technischen Hochschule, Graz, Austria | 1917 | Wave profiles; depth at the dam section as a function of h_{u} | Metal plates covered with washable colored stripes quickly dipped and lifted | ✗ | |

Trifonov [20,21] | Total; dry bottom | Rectangular channel L = 30 m, W = 0.4 m Lr = N.A., S = 0.004; smooth | h_{u} = 0.3, 0.4 m | 0.4 m | Research Institute of Hydraulic Engineering, Leningrad, Russia | 1933 | Wave profiles | N.A. | ✗ | |

Eguiazaroff [22] | Total (partial opening of the gate with different velocities) | Rectangular channel L = 30 m, W = N.A. Lr = N.A., S = 0; smooth and rough | h_{u} = 0.3 m | N.A. | Hydro-electric Laboratory, Leningrad, Russia | 1935 | Negative wave: free surface profiles at selected times; flow depth time series at six locations Positive wave: wave front celerity; free surface profiles at selected times | Electric chronograph; floating flow level recorder | ✗ | (γ = 0.056 m^{1/2},γ = 0.4 m ^{1/2}) |

Levin [7] | Total; dry and wet bottom | Rectangular, triangular, and trapezoidal channels L = N.A., W = N.A. Lr = N.A., S = 0; smooth and rough | h_{d}/h_{u} = 0–0.75 | N.A. | Belgrade Polytechnic, Serbia | 1952 | Flow depth at the dam site and at some representative sections of the wave profile | N.A. | ✗ | 1D SWE (graphical method) (n = 0.007 s m ^{−1/3},n = 0.026 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Martin and Moyce [23] | Collapse of a liquid column; dry bottom | Tank L > 3 Lr, W = 0.057 m, Lr = 0.057 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.114, 0.057 m | 0.057 m | N.A. | 1952 | Wave front position; stage hydrographs | Video camera (300 fps) | ✗ | |

Dressler [13] | Total; dry bottom | Rectangular channel L = 65 m, W = 0.225 m Lr = N.A., S = 0; rough (3 roughness values) | h_{u} = 0.22, 0.11, 0.055 m | 0.225 m | US Bureau Standard, USA | 1954 | Front positions, water depth profiles | Video cameras (1800 fps) | ✗ | − |

WES [24] | Total; dry bottom | Rectangular channel L = 121.92 m, W = 1.22 m Lr = 60.96 m, S = 0.005; smooth | h_{u} = 0.3048 m | 0.07–1.22 m | Vicksburg, Mississippi, USA | 1960 | Stage and discharge hydrographs | Video cameras (16 mm movies, 8–12 fps) | ✗ | (n = 0.009 s ft^{−1/3}) |

WES [25] | Total; dry bottom | Rectangular channel L = 121.92 m, W = 1.22 m Lr = 60.96 m, S = 0.005; rough | h_{u} = 0.09, 0.18, 0.30 m | 0.18–1.22 m | Vicksburg, Mississippi, USA | 1961 | Stage and discharge hydrographs | Video cameras (16 mm movies, 8–12 fps) | ✗ | (0.04 < n < 0.12 s ft^{−1/3}) |

Faure and Nahas [26] | Total; dry bottom | Rectangular channel L = 40.6 m, W = 0.25 m Lr = 20.3 m, S = 1.2·10 ^{−4}; rough | h_{u} = 0.23 m | 0.25 m | Laboratoire National d’Hydraulique de Chatou, France | 1961 | Water depth time series; front propagation | Video cameras | ✗ | 1D SWE MOC (n = 0.016 s m ^{−1/3}, n = 0.036 s m^{−1/3}) |

Estrade [27] | Total; dry bottom | Rectangular channel L = N.A., W = 0.25, 0.5 m Lr = N.A., S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.2–0.3 m | 0.25, 0.5 m | N.A. | 1967 | Wave profiles at different times | N.A. | ✗ | |

Nakagawa et al. [28] | Total; dry and wet bottom | Rectangular channel L = 30 m, W = 0.5 m Lr = 5 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.15–0.4 mh _{d} = 0–0.35 m | 0.5 m | Kyoto University, Japan | 1969 | Wave profiles; flow depth hydrographs at three positions; flow velocity at two locations; wave celerity; bore height | Video cameras (8–64 fps); pressure gauges | ✗ | |

Chervet and Dallèves [29] | Total; dry bottom | Rectangular channel L = 35 m, W = 0.3 m Lr = 5, 7.5, 15 m, S = −1, 4, 10%; rough | h_{u} = 0.3 m | 0.3 m | Laboratory of Hydraulics, Hydrology and Glaciology, Zurich, Switzerland | 1970 | Water depth and discharge hydrographs; front position and velocity | Video cameras | ✗ | 1D SWE MOC (n = 0.0077–0.0167 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Cunge [30], Cavaillé [31] | Total; dry and wet bottom | Rectangular channel L = 40 m, W = 0.25 m Lr = 20 m, S = 0; rough | h_{u} = 0.23 mh _{d} = 0, 0.005,0.01, 0.04 m | 0.25 m | National Laboratory of Hydraulics, Chatou, France | 1970 | Water depth hydrographs; propagation path and discontinuity height | N.A. | ✗ | 1D SWE FD (n = 0.01 s m ^{−1/3}, n = 0.0125 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Maxworthy [32] | Total; wet bottom; reflection against the closed end wall; interaction between solitary waves | Rectangular channel L = 5 m, W = 0.2 m, Lr = N.A., S = 0; smooth; | h_{d} = 0.045–0.067 msolitary waves with height of 0.31–0.5 h _{d} | 0.2 m | University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA | 1976 | Wave motion; maximum wave amplitude; qualitative wave profiles at selected times | Video camera (64 fps) | ✗ | |

Xanthopoulos and Koutitas [33] | Total; dry bottom | Rectangular channel L = 6 m, W = 0.25 m Lr = 1.2 m, S = 0; rough | h_{u} = 0.02–0.15 m | 0.25 m | Aristoteles University, Thessaloniki, Greece | 1976 | Water depth and discharge hydrographs; front propagation | Video cameras | ✗ | 2D SWE FD (n = 0.033 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Barr and Das [34] | Total; dry bottom; reflections against the end wall | Rectangular channel (a) L = 33.5 m, W = 1.5 m, Lr = 7.62 m, S = 0; (b) L = 4.4 m, W = 0.38 m Lr = 1.0 m, S = 0; smooth and rough | (a) h_{u} = 0.3048 m(b) h _{u} = 0.1676–0.3048 m | (a) 1.5 m (b) 0.38 m | University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK | 1980 | Water depth hydrographs; water surface profiles; front trajectories | Video cameras | ✗ | 1D SWE FD (ε = 0.0134–0.0387 m) |

Barr and Das [35] | Total; wet bottom; reflections against the end wall | Rectangular channel L = 33.5 m, W = 1.5 m Lr = 7.62 m, S = 0; rough | h_{u} = 0.3048 mh _{d} = 0.0762 m | 1.5 m | University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK | 1981 | Water depth hydrographs; water surface profiles; front trajectories | Video cameras | ✗ | 1D SWE FD (ε = 0.0134 m, ε = 0. 0387 m) |

Memos et al. [36] | Total; dry bottom | Tank L = 2.5 m, W =1.5 m Plane W = –, S = 0; rough | h_{u} = 0.03–0.105 m | 0.05 m | National Technical University of Athens, Greece | 1983 | Front propagation, velocity of the front along the x axis, flow profile near the dam | Video camera (18 fps) | ✗ | (n = 0.01 s m^{−1/3}) |

Townson and Al-Salihi [37] | Total; dry and wet bottom | Rectangular channel L = 4 m, W = 0.1 m, Lr ≈ 1.9 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.10 mh _{d}/h_{u} = 0.176 | 0.1 m | University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK | 1989 | Water depth hydrographs; water surface profiles at selected times | Video camera; resistance wave probes; pressure transducers | ✗ | 1D SWE (radial) MOC |

Menendez and Navarro [38] | Total; dry bottom (different gate removal times) | Rectangular channel L = 30 m, W = 0.31 m, Lr ≈ 15 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.38 m (max) | 0.31 m | University of Buenos Aires, Argentina | 1990 | Flow images; discharge and flow depth hydrographs at the gate site | Wire gages; video cameras | ✗ | |

Iverson et al. [39] Logan et al. [40] | Total; dry bottom (steep bottom slope) | Rectangular channel L = 95 m, W = 2 m, Lr = 12 m, S = 0.6; smooth and rough | Water volume: 6 m^{3} | 2 m | H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon, USA | 1992– 2017 | Flow depth time series at three locations; bottom pressure, bottom normal and shear loads at selected locations; propagation of the front wave | Ultrasonic distance meters; pressure and force transducers; video cameras | ✓ (videos) | |

Antunes Do Carmo et al. [41] | Total; wet bottom | Rectangular channel L = 7.5 m, W = 0.3 m, Lr = 3.85 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.099 mh _{d}/h_{u} = 0.587, 0.515 | 0.3 m | University of Coimbra, Portugal | 1993 | Water depth hydrographs at four positions | Water depth gauges | ✗ | 2D SGN FD |

Tingsanchali and Rattanapitikon [42] | Partial; dry bottom | Downstream plane L = 4 m, W = 1.9 m, Lr = 2.8 m (Reservoir, W = 1.7 m; bottom step at the plane inlet: 0.4 m) S = 0 and 1/200; smooth | h_{u} = 0.1, 0.2, 0.25 m | 0.1 m | Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand | 1993 | Wave front propagation; water depth hydrographs at selected positions | Video camera; water depth gauges; mini-current meter | ✗ | 2D SWE FD (n = 0.001–0.03 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Braschi et al. [43] | Partial; dry and wet bottom | Tank L = 1.4 m, W = 0.5 m, Lr = 0.4 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.14 mh _{d} = 0, 0.005 m | 0.05 m | University of Pavia, Italy | 1994 | Contour maps of water depth at different times | Video camera (25 fps) | ✗ | 2D SWE MOC-based (n = 0.01 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Manciola et al. [44] | Total; wet and dry bottom; open and closed downstream end (three different gate opening velocities) | Rectangular channel L = 9 m, W = 0.49 m, Lr = 3.366, 5.876 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} =0.2, 0.22,0.3, 0.35 m h _{d} = 0, 0.021 m | 0.49 m | University of Pavia, Italy | 1994 | Discharge hydrograph at the gate section; front celerity hydrographs; water depth time series at the gate section; wave front propagation | Video cameras (25 fps) | ✗ | 1D SWE FD (n = 0.015 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Aguirre-Pe et al. [45] | Total; dry bottom; highly viscous fluid | Rectangular channel L = 7 m, W = 1 m, Lr = h _{u}/sinθ,S = 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, 0.1, 0.15; smooth | h_{u} =0.05, 0.08, 0.1 m | 1 m | University of Los Andes, Mérida, Venezuela | 1995 | Wave front propagation; wave profile at selected times; flow depth time series at selected locations | Video camera (30 fps) | ✗ | 1D SWE FD |

Fraccarollo and Toro [46] | Partial; dry bottom | Plane L = 3 m, W = 2 m, Lr = 1 m, S = 0 and 7%; smooth | h_{u} = 0.6 m(0.64 m) | 0.4 m | University of Trento, Italy | 1995 | Bottom pressure time series at 14 points; water depth time series at nine points; time series of flow velocity components at 14 locations | Pressure transducers; capacitance wave meters; electromagnetic velocity meters | ✗ | 2D SWE FV (n = 0) |

Jovanović and Djordjević [47] | Total; dry bottom | Rectangular channel L = 4.5 m, W = 015 m, Lr = 2.25 m, S = 0.1%; smooth | h_{u} = 0.3 m | 0.15 m | University of Belgrade, Yugoslavia | 1995 | Water depth hydrographs, water depth profiles | Water depth capacity probes and video camera | ✗ | 2D SWE FD (n = 0.009 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Jovanović and Djordjević [47] | Partial; dry bottom | Downstream plane L = 1 m, W = 0.8 m, Lr = 1 m (Reservoir, W = 1 m), S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.15 m | 0.1 m | University of Belgrade, Yugoslavia | 1995 | Water depth hydrographs, water depth profiles | Water depth capacity probes and video camera | ✗ | 2D SWE FD (n = 0.01 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Koshizuka and Oka [48]; Koshizuka et al. [49] | Total, dry bottom; impact on a vertical wall | Rectangular channel L = 0.584 m, W = N.A., Lr = 0.146 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.292 m | N.A. | University of Tokyo, Japan | 1996 | Water depth profiles, wave front evolution | Video camera (50 fps) | ✗ | 2D NSE MPS |

Lauber and Hager [50] | Total; dry bottom | Rectangular channel L = 14 m, W = 0.5 m, Lr = 3.5 m S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.3 m | 0.5 m | ETH Zurich, Switzerland | 1998 | Free surface profiles, velocity and discharge profiles, wave front position | Video camera (50 fps) | ✗ | (ε = 5 × 10^{–6} m) |

Lauber and Hager [51] | Total; dry bottom | Rectangular channel L = 14 m, W = 0.5 m, Lr = 3.5 m S = 0.1, 0.5; smooth | h_{u} = 0.3 m | 0.5 m | ETH Zurich, Switzerland | 1998 | Surface profiles velocity distribution at fixed positions; discharge hydrographs | Video camera (50 fps) | ✗ | (ε = 5 × 10^{–6} m) |

Stansby et al. [52] | Total; dry and wet bottom | Rectangular channel L = 15.24 m, W = 0.4 m, Lr = 9.6 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.1, 0.36 mh _{d} = 0, 0.01h_{u}, 0.45h_{u} | 0.4 m | University of Manchester, UK | 1998 | Water elevation profiles | Laser, video camera (25 fps) | ✗ | |

Blaser and Hager [53] | Total; dry bottom | Rectangular channel L = 14 m, W = 0.5 m, Lr = N.A. S = 0–0.5; rough | h_{u} = 0.2–0.6 m | 0.5 m | ETH Zurich, Switzerland | 1999 | Wave front velocity and location | N.A. | ✗ | (ε = 2.5 × 10^{–3} m) |

Nsom et al. [54] | Total; dry bottom; Newtonian solution (glucose syrup-water) | Rectangular channel L = 5 m, W = 0.3 m, Lr = h _{u}/S,S = 3–12°; smooth | h_{u} = 0.055 m | 0.3 m | Université de Savoie, Cedex, France | 2000 | Flow depth time series at a selected section; front wave propagation | Video camera (1000 fps); ultrasonic distance meters | ✗ | |

Gallati and Braschi [55] | Total; dry and wet bottom | Tank L = 1.2 m, W = 0.05 m, Lr = 0.3 m; rough | h_{u} = 0.1 mh _{d} = 0–0.02 m | 0.05 m | University of Pavia, Italy | 2000 | Water elevation profiles | Video camera (24 fps) | ✗ | 2D EUL SPH |

Liem et al. [56] | Total; dry bottom | Rectangular channel L = 14 m, W = 0.5 m, Lr = 5 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.3, 0.35, 0.4, 0.45 m | 0.5 m | Aachen University of Technology, Germany | 2001 | Front position and velocity | Video camera (4500 fps) | ✗ | 1D SWE FE, FV |

Briechle and Köngeter [57] | Total; dry and wet bottom; inflow in the reservoir | Rectangular channel L = 12.2 m, W = 0.5 m, Lr = 2.65 m, S = 0.002; smooth | h_{u} = 0.3, 0.35, 0.4,0.45 m; steady inflow: 0, 40, 80, 120 l s ^{−1} | 0.5 m | Aachen University of Technology, Germany | 2002 | Water depth hydrographs in six sections; front position and velocity | Video camera (4500 fps) | ✗ | |

Soares-Frazão and Zech [58] | Total; wet bottom (undular bore) | Tank: L = 10 m, W > 1 m Channel: L = 26.15 m, W = 1 m S = 0; smooth | Different values of h _{u}–h_{d} | 1.0 m | Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium | 2002 | Water depth hydrographs at six positions | Water level gauges | ✗ | 1D BOU Hybrid FV–FD (n = 0) |

Shige-eda and Akiyama [59] | Partial (asymmetric); dry bottom | Tank L = 4.8 m, Wr = 2.98 m Lr = 1.93 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.4 m | 0.5 m | Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu, Japan | 2003 | Wave front position, flow depths and surface velocity hydrographs at six points | Digital video tape recorder; PTV | ✗ | 2D SWE FV (n < 0.07 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Stelling and Duinmeijer [60]; Duinmeijer [61] | Partial; dry and wet bottom | Tank L = 31 m, W = 7.56 m, Lr = 2.4 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.6 mh _{d} = 0, 0.03–0.05 m | 0.4 m | Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands | 2003 | Water depth hydrographs; front position and velocity | Water depth resistance probes; video camera (30 fps) | ✗ | 2D SWE FD (n = 0.012 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Chegini et al. [62] | Total; dry bottom | Rectangular channel L = 15.24 m, W = 0.4 m, Lr = 9.76 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.1 mh _{d} = 0.1–0.55 h_{u} | 0.4 m | University of Manchester, UK | 2004 | Flow field and velocity | Particle tracking and streak velocimetry | ✗ | |

Gallati and Sturla [63] | Partial; dry bottom | Tank L = 1.4 m, W = 0.5 m, Lr = 0.4 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.08 m | 0.155 m | University of Pavia, Italy | 2004 | Images of the flow field in the flood plain at different time steps | Video camera (25 fps) | ✗ | 2D SWE SPH (n = 0.01 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Jánosi et al. [64] | Total; dry and wet bottom | Tank L = 9.93 m, W = 0.15 m, Lr = 0.38 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.11–0.25 mh _{d} = 0, 0.018, 0.038 m | 0.15 m | Eötvös University, Budapest, Hungary | 2004 | Water surface profiles; front position and velocity | Video cameras | ✗ | |

Bukreev and Gusev [65] | Total; dry and wet bottom | Rectangular channel L >> 1.3 m, W = 0.2 m, Lr >> 0.3 m, S = 0; rough | h_{u} = 0.205 mh _{d} = 0.0, 0.02 m | 0.2 m | Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia | 2005 | Water level profiles | Wavemeters, video camera | ✗ | |

Eaket et al. [66] | Partial; dry and wet bottom | Tank L = 4.75 m, W = 2.31 m, Lr = 2.32 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 mh _{d} = 0.05, 0.1 m | 0.89 m | University of Alberta, Edmonton AB, Canada | 2005 | Water surface profiles and velocities | Video stereoscopy, Video cameras (30 fps) | ✗ | |

Piau and Debiane [67] | Total; dry bottom; highly viscous Newtonian solution (12, 85, 130 Pa s) | Rectangular channel L = 5 m, W = 0.3 m, Lr = 2, 4, 6, 8h _{u},S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.054, 0.055 m | 0.3 m | Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, France | 2005 | Wave front position with time; flow depth profiles at selected times | Video cameras (25, 1000 fps); ultrasonic distance meters | ✗ | |

Barnes and Baldock [68] | Total; dry bottom | Rectangular channel L = 4.0 m, W = 0.4 m, Lr = 2.25 m, S = 0; rough | h_{u} = 0.2 m | 0.4 m | University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia | 2006 | Shear stress; free surface elevation; velocity | Shear plate, ADV, acoustic displacement sensors | ✗ | (ε = 0.1 × 10^{–3} m) |

Bateman et al. [69] | Total; dry bottom; end platform | Channel: L = 9.0 m, W = 0.4 m, Lr = 2.0 m, S = 27°; rough; Platform: 4 m × 2.4 m | h_{u} = 0.5 m | 0.4 m | Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain | 2006 | Water surface profiles | Video cameras (30, 1000 fps) | ✗ | |

Cruchaga et al. [70] | Total; dry bottom; impact on a vertical wall (two different fluids: shampoo and water) | Tank L = 0.42 m, W = 0.228 m, Lr = 0.114 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 1Lr, 2Lr | 0.228 m | University of Santiago, Chile | 2007 | Water depth time series at selected sections; wave front position | Video cameras | ✗ | 2D NSE, ETILT FE |

Maranzoni et al. [71] | Total; dry bottom; horizontal and sloping channel | Tank L = 11 m, W = 0.18 m, Lr = 0.114 m, S = 0, 6%; smooth | h_{u} = 0.1 m | 0.18 m | University of Brescia, Italy | 2007 | Water surface profiles; Water depth hydrographs | Video camera (25 fps) | ✗ | 1D SWE FV; 2D EUL, VOF FV |

Aureli et al. [14,72] | Partial; dry and wet bottom | Tank L = 2.6 m, W = 1.2 m, Lr = 0.8 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.15 mh _{d} = 0.01 m | 0.3 m | University of Parma, Italy | 2008 | Water surface at 10 times; water depth time series at a gauge point | Video camera (3 fps); ultrasonic distance meters | ✓ | 2D SWE FV (n = 0.007 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Mohamed [73] | Total; dry and wet bottom | Rectangular channel L = 12.2 m, W = 1.22 m, Lr = 3.60 m, S = 0; concrete bottom and glass side walls, smooth | h_{u} = 0.3, 0.45, 0.6 mh _{d} = 0, 0.025, 0.05 m | 1.22 m | University of Hawaii at Manoa | 2008 | Water surface profiles in time, bore height, shape and speed | Video camera (30 fps) | ✗ | |

Ancey et al. [74] | Total; dry bottom; highly viscous Newtonian fluid (glucose solution) | Rectangular channel L = 4 m, W = 0.3 m S = 0, 6, 12, 18, 24°; smooth | Mass in the reservoir: 50.8–57.6 kg | 0.3 m | EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland | 2009 | Free surface (imaging technique) and flow depth profiles at selected times; front position with time | Video camera | ✗ | |

Yang et al. [75] | Partial; wet bottom | Rectangular channel L = 28 m, W = 1.6 m, Lr = 10 m, S = 0; concrete bottom and glass side walls; smooth | h_{u} = 0.4 mh _{d} = 0.12 m | 0.2 m | Tsinghua University, Beijing, China | 2010 | Water depth hydrographs; velocity fields at fixed times | Pressure probes, PIV, video cameras | ✗ | 3D RANS, VOF FV |

Ozmen-Cagatay and Kocaman [76,77] | Total; dry and wet bottom | Rectangular channel L = 9 m, W = 0.3 m, Lr = 4.65 m, S = 0; smooth; | h_{u} = 0.25 mh _{d} = 0, 0.025, 0.1 m | 0.3 m | Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey | 2010 | Water depth profiles at different time steps | Video camera (50 fps) | ✗ | 2D RANS, VOF FV; 2D SWE FV |

Duarte et al. [78]; Boillat et al. [79]; Ribeiro et al. [80] | Total; silted-up reservoir; dry bottom; multiphase flow | Rectangular channel L = 5.5 m, W = 0.42 m, Lr = 1.5 m, S = 0; smooth (2 mean grain size diameters) | h_{u} = 0.4, 0.41, 0.42 m(sediment depth: 0.22–0.39 m) | 0.42 m | EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland | 2011 | Video images; water and sediment surface profiles at selected times; sediment deposition; water front propagation; maximum wave depth profile | Video camera (15 fps) | ✗ | |

Marra et al. [81] | Total; dry bottom | Rectangular channel L = 3 m, W = 0.1 m, S = 1.5–24°; smooth and rough | Water volume in the reservoir = 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 l | 0.1 m | EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland | 2011 | Wave front position and velocity; water surface profiles at selected times; water depth hydrographs at two positions | Video camera (500–800 fps) | ✗ | (two rough bottoms: n = 0.0133 s m ^{−1/3}, n = 0.0153 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Aleixo et al. [82,83,84,85] | Total; dry bottom; first stages (upward and downward moving gate) | Rectangular channel L = 6 m, W = 0.25 m, Lr = 3 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.325, 0.4 m | 0.25 | Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium | 2011 | Flow images; velocity field and components at selected sections | Video camera (100 fps); PIV | ✗ | |

Feizi Khankandi et al. [86] | Total; four different reservoir geometries; dry and wet bottom | 1: Lr = 0.89 m, W = 2 m, 2: Lr = 1.79 m, W = 1.5 m, 3: Lr = 1.5-2.5 m, W = 0.51 m, 4: Lr = 3.5 m, W = 0.51 m, Channel: L = 9.3 m, W = 0.51 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.35, 0.4, 0.45 mh _{d} =0, 0.08 m | 0.51m | Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran | 2012 | Water depth, velocity and discharge hydrographs at different positions; water surface profile at different times | Ultrasonic distance meters; ADV, video camera (110 fps) | ✗ | (n = 0.011 s m^{−1/3}) |

Oertel and Bung [87] | Total; dry bottom | Rectangular channel L = 22 m, W = 0.3 m, Lr = 13 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 m | 0.3 m | Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Germany | 2012 | Water depth in seven measuring points; water depth profiles at selected times; velocity field at selected times | Ultrasonic distance meters; video camera (1000 fps); PIV | ✗ | 2D RANS, VOF FV (ε = 0.0015 × 10 ^{−3} m) |

LaRocque et al. [88] | Total; dry bottom | Rectangular channel L = 7.31 m, W = 0.18 m, Lr = 3.37 m, S = 0.93%; smooth | h_{u} = 0.25, 0.3, 0.35 m | 0.18 m | University of South Carolina, USA | 2013 | Water surface profiles at selected times; velocity vertical profiles at eight locations | Ultrasonic distance meters; ultrasonic Doppler velocity profilers | ✗ | 2D RANS, VOF FV (ε = 0.01 × 10 ^{−3} m) |

Miani et al. [89] | Total; wet bottom | Rectangular channel L = 10 m, W = 0.5 m, Lr = 1 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.4 mh _{d} = 0.2, 0.3 m;h _{u} = 0.4 mh _{d} = 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 m | 0.5 m | Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy | 2013 | Water depth hydrographs at 10 locations | Ultrasonic distance meters | ✗ | 1D SWE FV |

Hooshyaripor and Tahershamsi [90] | Total; dry bottom | Rectangular channel L = 9.3 m, W = 0.51 m, Lr = 4.5 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.35 m | 0.51 m | Amirkabir University of Technology, Iran | 2015 | Water depth hydrographs at 11 points; velocity and discharge hydrographs at six locations | Ultrasonic distance meters, ADV | ✗ | 3D RANS, VOF FV (n = 0.011 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Jiang and Baldock [91] | Total; dry bottom | Rectangular channel L = 3 m, W = 0.4 m, Lr = 1.7 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 m | 0.4 m | University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Australia | 2015 | Flow depth and bottom shear stress time series | Acoustic displacement sensors; shear plate; PIV | ✗ | 2D SWE FV (n = 0.01, 0.011, 0.019 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Jiang and Baldock [91] | Total; dry bottom (fixed sand false bed, two grain sizes d _{50} = 0.22, 2.85 mm) | Rectangular channel L = 3 m, W = 0.4 m, Lr = 1 m, S = 0, 1/10; rough (fine and coarse) | h_{u} = 0.08–0.22 m | 0.4 m | University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Australia | 2015 | Flow depth and bottom shear stress time series | Acoustic displacement sensors; shear plate; PIV | ✗ | 2D SWE FV (n = 0.01, 0.011, 0.019 s m ^{−1/3}) |

McMullin [92] | Total; dry and wet bottom (two gate removal mechanisms) | Rectangular channel L = 0.5 m, W = 0.175 m, Lr = 0.2 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.06–0.14 mh _{d} = 0.005–0.02 m | 0.175 m | University of Nottingham, UK | 2015 | Wave front position in time; wave profiles at selected times; horizontal and vertical velocity at selected times and positions | Video cameras, PIV | ✗ | 2D NSE, VOF FD |

Mrokowska et al. [93] | Total; wet bottom; closed downstream end | Rectangular channel L = 60 m, W = 0.6 m Lr = 5 m, S = 0.002; smooth; | h_{u} = 0.31, 0.36 mh _{d} = 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 m | 0.6 m | Polish Academy of Science, Warsaw, Poland | 2015 | Water depth hydrographs at seven locations; velocity fields | Water level sensors; video camera (520 fps); PIV | ✗ | |

Aleixo et al. [94] | Total; silted-up reservoir (tailings dam-break); dry bottom; sudden enlargement | Plane L = 7.66 m, W = 3.66 m, S = 0; smooth Reservoir Lr = 3.24 m, Wr = 0.5 m | h_{u} = 0.4 m(sediment depth 0.2 m) | 0.5 m | National Sedimentation Laboratory, Oxford, Mississippi, USA | 2016 | Velocity fields | Video cameras (400 fps); PIV-PTV | ✗ | |

Elkholy et al. [95] | Partial; dry bottom | Tank L = 11 m, W = 4.3 m, Lr = 3 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 m | 0.4 m | University of South Carolina, USA | 2016 | Pressure head at the bottom in nine points; water surface elevations and surface velocity; velocity profile at the center of the gate section | Pressure sensors; PTV (video cameras, 60 fps); ultrasonic velocity profiler | ✗ | |

Javadian et al. [96] | Total; dry bottom closed downstream end | Rectangular channel L = 2 m, W = 0.2 m, Lr = 1 m, S = 0; smooth; | h_{u} = 0.11, 0.12, 0.13 m | 0.2 m | Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran | 2016 | Water surface profiles at selected times; wavefront position in time | Video camera (24 fps) | ✗ | |

Hooshyaripor et al. [97] | Total; dry bottom | Rectangular channel L = 9.3 m, W = 0.51 m, S = 0; smooth Reservoir: Lr = 4.5 m, W = 2.25 m (different side slopes and lengths) | h_{u} = 0.35 m | 0.51 m | Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran | 2017 | Water depth and flow velocity time series at selected locations | Ultrasonic distance meters; ADV | ✗ | |

Liu and Liu [98,99] | Total; dry and wet bottom | Rectangular channel L = 6.5 m, W = 0.4 m, Lr = 1.5 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.16–0.36 mh _{d} = 0, 0.02, 0.04 m | 0.4 m | Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China | 2017 | Water surface profiles at selected times; water depth time series; flow velocity time series | Video camera (150 fps); capacitive wave gauges; ADV | ✗ | |

Cordero et al. [100] | Patial; dry bottom | Reservoir Lr = 1 m; W = 1 m Floodable area L = 4 m, W, 3 m S = 0, 12°; smooth | h_{u} = 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 m | 2h_{u}(triang. 1H:1V slope) | Polytechnic University of Turin, Italy | 2018 | Water surface at selected times; water depth time series; water depth profiles | Video camera (100 fps) | ✗ | |

Liu et al. [101] | Total; dry and wet bottom | Rectangular channel L = 18 m, W = 1 m, Lr = 8.37 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.6 mh _{d} = 0.06, 0.12,0.18, 0.24 m | 1 m | Sichuan University, Chengdu, China | 2018 | Water surface and average flow velocity profiles at selected times; wave front celerities | Video cameras (48 fps) | ✗ | 1D SWE |

Hamid et al. [102,103] | Total; dry bottom open and closed downstream end | Rectangular channel L = 6.7 m, W = 0.3048 m, Lr = 2.13 m, S = 0.002; smooth | h_{u} = 0.762 m | 0.3048 m | University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan | 2018 | Water depth and flood wave velocity time series at selected sections | Point gauges and velocity sensor | ✗ | 2D SWE FV |

Stolle et al. [104]; von Häfen et al. [105] | Total; wet bottom; swing gate (opening time influence) | Rectangular channel L = 30 m, W = 1.5 m, Lr = 21.55 m, S = 0; rough | h_{u} = 0.2, 0.3,0.4, 0.5 m | 1.4 m | University of Ottawa, Canada | 2018 | Water depth time series at four locations; flow velocity at a selected location; wave front arrival time | Capacitance wave gauges; propeller velocity flowmeter; video cameras (70, 120 fps) | ✗ | (ε = 0.001·10^{−3} m,λ = 0.014, 0.0293) |

Liu et al. [106] | Total; wet bottom | Rectangular channel L = 18 m, W = 1 m, Lr = 8.37 m S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.4 mh _{d} = 0.02, 0.04, 0.08, 0.12, 0.16 m | 1 m | Sichuan University, Chengdu, China | 2019 | Video images; water surface profiles at selected times; water depth time series at selected locations | Video cameras (48 fps) | ✗ | 2D RANS, VOF FV |

Melis et al. [107] | Total; dry bottom; effect of vegetation (polymeric cylinders) | Rectangular channel L = 11.6 m, W = 0.5 m, Lr = N.A., S = 0, 1, 2, 3%; smooth, rough | h_{u} = 0.15, 0.2,0.25, 0.3 m | 0.5 m | Polytechnic University of Turin, Italy | 2019 | Water surface profiles | Video cameras (30 fps) | ✓ | 1D SWE FD (n = 0.05 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Turhan et al. [108]; Turhan et al. [109] | Total; dry and wet bottom; closed downstream end; salt water | Rectangular channel L = 1.216 m, W = 0.2 m, Lr = 0.3 m, S = 0; smooth; | h_{u} = 0.15 mh _{d}/h_{u} = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 | 0.2 m | Adana Science and Technology University, Turkey | 2019 | Water surface profiles at selected times; water depth time series at four locations | Video camera (60 fps) | ✗ | 3D RANS, VOF SPH |

Wang et al. [110] | Total; wet bottom | Rectangular channel (rectangular and triangular section) L = 18 m, W = 1 m, Lr = 8.37 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.4, 0.6 mh _{d}/h_{u} = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 | 1 m | Sichuan University, Chengdu, China | 2019 | Water surface profiles at selected times; water depth time series at selected locations | Video cameras (48 fps) | ✗ | |

Wu et al. [111] | Total; wet bottom; closed downstream end | Rectangular channel L = 16.38 m, W = 0.4 m, Lr = 5.47 m, S = 0; smooth; | h_{u} = 0.16, 0.28 mh _{d} = 0.12 m | 0.4 m | Dalian University of Technology, China | 2019 | Water depth hydrographs at 12 locations; flow velocity time series at four locations | Wave gauges; ADV | ✗ | 2D BOU Hybrid FD–FV (n = 0.01 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Liu et al. [112] | Total; dry and wet bottom | Rectangular channel L = 18 m, W = 1 m, Lr = 8.37 m S = 0, 0.003, 0.02; smooth | h_{u} = 0.2 mh _{d} = 0–0.18 m;h _{u} = 0.4 mh _{d} = 0–0.36 m | 1 m | Sichuan University, Chengdu, China | 2020 | Video images; water surface and mean velocity profiles; wave front celerity | Video cameras (48 fps) | ✗ | |

Oertel and Süfke [113] | Total; dry bottom | Rectangular channel L = 12.5 m, W = 0.3 m, Lr = 6.5 m S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 m | 0.3 m | Technical University of Applied Sciences, Luebeck, Germany | 2020 | Water depth at three selected locations; flow velocity vertical profiles | Ultrasonic distance meters; video camera (732 fps); PIV and optical flow methods | ✗ | |

Shugan et al. [114] | Total; dry and wet bottom; first stages | Rectangular channel L = 25 m, W = 0.3 m, Lr = ~11 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.3, 0.4 mh _{d} = 0, 0.03,0.06, 0.09 m | 0.3 m | National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan | 2020 | Water depth time series at 12 locations; water surface profile at selected times; front wave celerity; velocity profiles | Capacitance wave gauges; video camera (30 fps); PIV (video camera, 1000 fps) | ✗ | |

Vosoughi et al. [115,116,117] | Total; silted-up reservoir dry and wet bottom; multiphase flow | Rectangular channel L = 6 m, W = 0.3 m, Lr = 1.52 m S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.3 mh _{d} = 0.02, 0.04, 0.05 m(sediment depth: 0–0.24 m) | 0.3 m | University of Shiraz, Iran | 2020 | Video images; water surface profiles; water and sediment depth time series at 16 points | Video cameras (50 fps) | ✓ | 3D NSE, VOF NSE, TFM FV |

Wang et al. [118] | Total; dry and wet bottom | Rectangular channel (triangular section) L = 18 m, W = 1 m, Lr = 8.37 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 mh _{d}/h_{u} = 0–0.9 | 1 m | Sichuan University, Chengdu, China | 2020 | Water surface profiles at selected times; water depth time series at selected locations; wave front celerity | Video cameras (48 fps) | ✗ | |

Wang et al. [119] | Total; wet bottom | Rectangular channel L = 18 m, W = 1 m, Lr = 8.37 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 mh _{d}/h_{u} = 0.05–0.9 | 1 m | Sichuan University, Chengdu, China | 2020 | Water surface profiles at selected times; water level hydrographs at selected locations | Video cameras (48 fps) | ✗ | 2D RANS, VOF FV |

Ahmadi and Yamamoto [120] | Partial (trapezoidal and triangular breach); dry bottom | Rectangular channel L = 12 m, W = 0.5 m, Lr = 2.5 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.25, 0.3 m | 0.2, 0.3 m | Tokai University, Kanagawa, Japan | 2021 | Water depth hydrograph at a point located 50 cm upstream of the gate | Video camera | ✗ | |

Ansari et al. [121] | Total; dry and wet bottom | Rectangular channel L = 3.7 m, W = 0.6 m, Lr = 0.6 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.15 mh _{d} = 0, 0.015, 0.03, 0.058, 0.07 m | 0.6 m | University of Zanjan, Iran | 2021 | Water surface profiles | Video camera (60fps) | ✗ | 2D (Molecular dynamics software) SPH |

Ansari et al. [121] | Total; dry bottom; interaction of two opposite dam-break waves | Rectangular channel L = 3.7 m, W = 0.6 m, Lr = 0.6 m (2 opposite reservoirs at the channel ends), S = 0; smooth | h_{u}_{1} = 0.2 mh _{u}_{2} = 0.2, 0.3 m | 0.6 m | University of Zanjan, Iran | 2021 | Water surface profiles | Video camera (60fps) | ✗ | 2D (Molecular dynamics software) SPH |

Birnbaum et al. [122] | Total; dry bottom; three-phase Newtonian suspensions | Rectangular channel L = 1.2 m, W = 0.15 m, Lr = 0.2 m (W = 1m), S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.04–0.13 m | 0.15 m | Columbia University, New York, USA | 2021 | Wave front position with time | Video cameras (1 fps; 30 fps) | ✓ | |

Espartel and Manica [123] | Total; dry and wet bottom; first stages | Rectangular channel L = 6.71 m, W = 0.24 m, Lr = 0.71 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 mh _{d} = 0, 0.02,0.04, 0.08 m | 0.24 m | Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil | 2021 | Water surface profiles at selected times | Video cameras (240 fps) | ✗ | |

Kocaman et al. [124] | Partial; dry and wet bottom | Tank L = 1 m, W = 0.5 m, Lr = 0.25 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.15 mh _{d} = 0.015, 0.030 m | 0.1 m | Iskenderun Technical University, Turkey | 2021 | Water surface at selected times; water depth time series at five points | Video camera (50 fps); ultrasonic distance meters | ✗ | 3D RANS, VOF FV; 2D SWE FV |

Nguyen-Thi et al. [125] | Total; dry and wet bottom; water and three high-viscous Newtonian fluids | Rectangular channel L = 2 m, W = 0.055 m, Lr = 0.28 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.11 mh _{d} = 0–0.066 m | 0.055 m | Université de Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens, France | 2021 | Water surface profiles | Video camera (203 fps) | ✗ | 3D RANS, VOF FV |

Takagi and Furukawa [126] | Total; dry bottom; different gate opening velocities (0.2–2.5 m/s) | Rectangular channel L = 3 m, W = 0.38 m, Lr = 0.5 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.5 m | 0.38 m | Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan | 2021 | Bottom pressure time series at four points along the channel centerline; water surface profiles | Pressure sensors; video camera (2400 fps) | ✗ | |

Wang et al. [127] | Total; dry bottom | Triangular channel L = 18 m, W = 1 m, Lr = 8.37 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 mh _{d}/h_{u} = 0–0.9 | 1 m | Sichuan University, Chengdu, China | 2021 | Water surface profiles; water level hydrographs, wave front celerity | Video cameras (48 fps) | ✗ | |

Xu et al. [128] | Total; dry and wet bottom | Rectangular channel L = 13 m, W = 0.25m, Lr = N.A., S = 0.0031; rough | h_{u} = 0.4 mh _{d} = 0–0.098 m | 0.25 m | University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia | 2021 | Shear stress; water depth hydrographs | Shear plate; acoustic distance sensors | ✗ | (ε = 0.084 m) |

Ozmen-Cagatay et al. [129] | Total; dry bottom; closed downstream end; three Newtonian fluids | Rectangular channel L = 1.216 m, W = 0.2 m, Lr = 0.3 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.15 m | 0.2 m | Adana Science and Technology University, Turkey | 2022 | Water surface profiles, water depth hydrographs | Video camera (60 fps) | ✗ | 2D RANS, VOF FV |

Yang et al. [130,131] | Total; dry and wet bottom | Rectangular channel L = 10.72 m, W = 1.485 m, Lr = 4.58 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.13–0.483 mh _{d} = 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.1, 0.12, 0.14 m | 1.485 m | Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China | 2022 | Water depth hydrographs; wave front celerity; flow velocity | Wave gauges; ADV | ✗ | 2D RANS, VOF FV |

Nielsen et al. [132] | Total; dry and wet bottom | Rectangular channel L = 13 m, W = 0.5 m, Lr = 0.625 m, S = 0; smooth and rough (4 different values) | h_{u} = 0.4 mh _{d} = 0.018 m | 0.5 m | University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia | 2022 | Water depth and bottom shear stresses hydrographs; dam-break front celerity | Acoustic transducers; shear plates | ✗ | |

Zhang et al. [133] | Total; dry and wet bottom | Triangular channel (side slope: 45°) L = 18 m, W = 1 m, Lr = 8.37 m, S = 0, 0.003, 0.01, 0.02; smooth | h_{u} = 0.6 m; 0.4 mh _{d}/h_{u} = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 | 1 m | Sichuan University, Chengdu, China | 2022 | Water surface profiles; water depth hydrographs | Video cameras (50 fps) | ✗ |

^{1}L = facility length; W = facility width; Lr = reservoir length; Wr = reservoir width (if different from W); S = bottom slope;

^{2}h

_{u}= upstream water depth; h

_{d}= downstream water depth;

^{3}ADV = acoustic Doppler velocimeter; PIV = particle image velocimetry; PTV = particle tracking velocimetry;

^{4}✗ = not freely available; ✓ = freely available;

^{5}Approach: 1D = one-dimensional; 2D = two-dimensional; 3D = three-dimensional–Mathematical model: BOU = Boussinesq equations; ETILT = edge-tracked interface locator technique; EUL = Euler equations; NSE = Navier–Stokes equations; RANS = Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations; SGN = Serre–Green–Naghdi equations; SWE = shallow water equations; VOF = volume of fluid–Numerical method: FD = finite difference; FE = finite element; FV = finite volume; MOC = method of characteristics; MPS = moving particle semi-implicit; SPH = smoothed-particle hydrodynamics; TFM = two-fluid method–n = Manning roughness coefficient; ε = surface roughness; λ = friction factor; γ = Bazin roughness coefficient; N.A. = not available.

(1) Reference | (2) Dam-Break Type | (3) Setup Characteristics ^{1} | (4) Initial Conditions ^{2} | (5) Breach Width | (6) Laboratory | (7) Year | (8) Measured Data | (9) Measuring Technique ^{3} | (10) Data ^{4} | (11) Numerical Simulation ^{5} |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Chervet and Dallèves [29] | Total; wet bottom; adverse slope; converging-diverging walls | Rectangular channel L = 23 m, W = 0.3 m Lr = 5, 7.5, 15 m, S = −1, 4, 10% rough channel | h_{u} = 0.3 mh _{d} = 0.02 m | 0.3 m | Laboratory of Hydraulics, Hydrology and Glaciology, Zurich, Switzerland | 1970 | Water depth and discharge hydrographs; front position and velocity | Video cameras | ✗ | 1D SWE MOC (n = 0.0077– 0.0167 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Matsutomi [134] | Total; dry bottom; adverse slope | Tank with L = 3.9 m, W = 0.3 m, Lr = 1.5 m, S = −0.075, −0.15; rough | h_{u} = 0.13 m | 0.3 m | University of Akita, Japan | 1983 | Wave front trajectories | N.A. | ✗ | 2D SWE FD (specific resistance law) |

Martin [135] | Total; dry and wet bottom | Radial reservoir with variable radius r and diverging walls (θ = 5.71–90°) | h_{u} = 0.36 m | r × θ variable | Dresden Technical University, Germany | 1983 | Discharge hydrograph at the dam position; water surface profile; water level hydrographs | Photographic film sheeting; oscillograph; photogrammetric plotting | ✗ | 1D SWE MOC |

Michouev and Sladkevich [136] | Total; wet bottom; sudden enlargement at the dam | Rectangular channel L = 8.8 m, W = 1.6 m, Lr = 4 m, Wr = 0.4 m, S = 0 | h_{u} = N.A.h _{d} = 0.1 h_{u} | 0.4 m | State University of Moscow, Russia | 1983 | Water depth hydrographs at four locations; water depth profiles at three times | N.A. | ✗ | 2D SWE FD |

Miller and Chaudhry [137] | Total; dry bottom; 180° curved channel | Rectangular channel L = 11.4 m, W = 0.3 m; S = 0; smooth Reservoir Lr = 1.6 m, Wr = 3.65 m | h_{u} = 0.1, 0.152, 0.2,0.254, 0.3 m | 0.3 m | State University of Washington, USA | 1988 | Water depth hydrographs at three points in the channel and five points in the reservoir | Capacitance probes; video camera (60 fps) | ✗ | 1D SWE FD (n = 0.014–0.018 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Townson and Al-Salihi [37] | Total; dry and wet bottom; converging diverging walls (θ = 5°) | Rectangular channel L = 4 m, W = 0.1 m, Lr ~1.9 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.1 mh _{d}/h_{u} = 0.176 | 0.1 m | University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK | 1989 | Water depth hydrographs; wave front position; water surface profiles | High speed tape recorder; resistance wave probes; pressure transducers | ✗ | 1D SWE (radial) MOC |

Bell et al. [138] | Total; dry and wet bottom; 180° curved rectangular channel | Reservoir Lr = 2.29 m, Wr = 3.66 m Rectangular channel W = 0.3 m, S = 0; smooth and rough | h_{u} = 0.15, 0.2, 0.25,0.3, 0.35 m h _{d} = 0, 0.013, 0.025, 0.051, 0.0761 m | 0.305 m | State University of Washington, USA | 1992 | Water depth hydrographs; wave front position | Capacitance probes; video camera (60 fps) | ✗ | (n = 0.0165, 0.04 s m^{−1/3}) |

Bellos et al. [139] | Total; dry and wet bottom; gradually variable channel width | Rectangular channel L = 21.2 m, W = 1.4 m, Lr = 8.5 m, S = 0–0.01; smooth | h_{u} = 0.15–0.3 mh _{d} = 0, 0.053, 0.101 m | 0.6 m | University of Thrace, Xanthi, Greece | 1992 | Water depth hydrographs; water surface profiles at 10 positions | Wave meters, pressure transducers | ✗ | 2D SWE FD (n = 0.012 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Četina and Rajar [140] | Total; dry bottom; sudden enlargement (4 m downstream of the dam) | Rectangular channel L = 20 m, W = 0.4 and 2.8 m, Lr = 8 m, Wr = 1.2 m, S = 0.2%; smooth | h_{u} = 0.25, 0.35, 0.45 m | 0.4 m | University of Skopje, North Macedonia | 1994 | Water depth time series in 31 points; longitudinal and cross-sectional water surface profiles; flow velocity time series at selected points | Capacitance wave gauges; velocity probes | ✗ | 2D SWE FD (n = 0.0137 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Manciola et al. [44] | Total; wet and dry bottom; adverse slope (−0.084, −0.096, −0.15) (three different gate opening velocities) | Rectangular channel L = 9 m, W = 0.49 m, Lr = 3.366, 5.876 m, S = 0, smooth | h_{u} =0.2, 0.22,0.3, 0.35 m h _{d} = 0, 0.021 m | 0.49 m | University of Pavia, Italy | 1994 | Discharge and water depth hydrographs at the gate section; front celerity hydrographs; wave front propagation | Video cameras (25 fps) | ✗ | 1D SWE FD (n = 0.015 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Aureli et al. [141] | Total; dry and wet bottom; bumps | Rectangular channel L = 7 m, W = 1 m, Lr = 2.25 m, S = 0–0.033; smooth | h_{u} = 0.292, 0.342,0.35 m above the bump | 1 m | University of Parma, Italy | 1999 | Water depth and velocity hydrographs | Video camera (25 fps); ADV | ✗ | 1D SWE FD (n = 0.01 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Soares-Frazão and Zech [142]; Soares-Frazão et al. [143] | Total; dry and wet bottom; 90° bend (step at the channel entrance δ = 0.33 m) | Tank L = 2.39 m, W = 2.44 m Channel with 90° bend L = 7.335 m, W = 0.495m S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.2 mh _{d} = 0, 0.01 m | 0.495 m | Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium | 1999 | Water depth time series at six locations; wave front velocity | Water level probes | ✓ | 2D SWE LB (bottom: n = 0.0095 s m ^{−1/3};side walls: n = 0.0195 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Soares-Frazão and Zech [142]; Soares-Frazão et al. [143] | Total; dry bottom; 45° bend (step at the channel entrance δ = 0.33 m) | Tank L = 2.39 m, W = 2.44 m Channel with 90° bend L = 8.2 m, W = 0.495m S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.25 mh _{d} = 0, 0.01 m | 0.495 m | Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium | 1999 | Water depth time series at nine locations; wave front velocity | Water level probes | ✓ | 2D SWE LB (bottom: n = 0.0095 s m ^{−1/3};side walls: n = 0.0195 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Aureli et al. [144,145] | Total; dry and wet bottom; adverse slope (−8, −9, −10%) | Rectangular channel with adverse slope L = 7 m, W = 1 m, Lr = 2.25 m, S = 0, 1, 2%, smooth and rough | h_{u} = 0.21, 0.25,0.292 m h _{d} = 0, 0.045, 0.05 m | 1 m | University of Parma, Italy | 2000 | Water depth and velocity hydrographs | Video camera (25 fps); ADV | ✗ | 1D SWE FD (n = 0.01, 0.025 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Bento Franco and Betâmio de Almeida [146]; Viseu et al. [147] | Total; wet bottom; sudden enlargement (6.45 m downstream of the dam) | Rectangular channel L = 19.3 m, W = 0.5 m, 2.3 m, Lr = 6.1 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.504 mh _{d} = 0.003 m | 0.5 m | Istituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon, Portugal | 2000 | Water depth hydrographs at six points | N.A. | ✓ | (n = 0.009 s m^{−1/3}) |

Hiver [148] | Total; dry bottom upstream of the sill, dry and wet bottom downstream; triangular bottom sill | Rectangular channel L = 38 m, W = 1 m, Lr = 15.5 m, S = 0; smooth and rough | h_{u} = 0.75 mh _{d} = 0, 0.15 m | 1 m | Laboratoire de Recherches Hydrauliques, Châtelet, Belgium | 2000 | Water depth hydrographs | Gauge measurements | ✓ | (n = 0.0125 s m^{−1/3}) |

Soares-Frazão et al. [149]; Soares-Frazão [150] | Total; closed downstream end dry bottom upstream of the sill, wet bottom downstream; triangular bottom sill (±0.14 slopes, 0.065 m high) | Rectangular channel L = 5.6 m, W = 0.5 m, Lr = 2.39 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.111 mh _{d} = 0, 0.02, 0.025 m | 0.5 m | Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium | 2002 | Water surface profiles | Video cameras (25 and 40 fps) | ✓ | 1D SWE FV (n = 0.011 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Soares-Frazão and Zech [151] | Total; dry bottom; 90° bend (step at the channel entrance δ = 0.33 m) | Tank L = 2.39 m, W = 2.44 m Channel with 90° bend L = 7.335 m, W = 0.495m S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.25 m | 0.495 m | Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium | 2002 | Water depth profiles; velocity field at the bend | Video camera (200 fps and 40 fps); PIV | ✗ | Hybrid 1D–2D SWE FV (n = 0.011 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Bukreev [152] | Total; dry and wet bottom; bottom drop (δ = 0.051, 0.072 m) | Channel L = 4.2 m, W = 0.202 Reservoir L = 3.3 m, W = 1 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.075, 0.102, 0.12, 0.152, 0.154, 0.212 mh _{d} = N.A. | 0.202 m | Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk | 2003 | Dimensionless height of water impingement on a vertical wall | Powder coating on end wall | ✗ | |

Bukreev and Gusev [153] | Total; dry and wet bottom; bottom drop (δ = 0.072 m) | Channel L = 4.2 m, W = 0.202 m Reservoir Lr = 3.3 m, W = 1 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.125 mh _{d} = 0.022, 0.032, 0.05, 0.056, 0.072, 0.1 m | 0.202 m | Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk | 2003 | Dimensional and dimensionless hydrographs of water depth for different reservoir and channel depths, water profiles at selected times | Wavemeters; video camera | ✗ | |

Soares-Frazão et al. [154] | Total; dry bottom; sudden enlargement | Rectangular channel L = 7.6 m, W = 0.12–0.496 m, Lr = 4 m, S = 0; rough | h_{u} = 0.2 m | 0.12 m | Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium | 2003 | Water depth time series at five locations; surface-velocity fields at selected times | Water level gauges; water-level follower; digital imaging | ✗ | 2D SWE FV (n = 0.015 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Bukreev et al. [155] | Total; dry and wet bottom bottom step (δ = 0.06 m) | Channel L = 7.07 m, W = 0.202 m Reservoir Lr = 3.3 m, W = 1–0.202 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.01–0.22 mh _{d} = 0, 0.01, 0.09 m | 0.202 m | Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk | 2004 | Water-level profiles, water depth hydrographs | Wave recorders; video camera | ✗ | |

Bellos [156] | Total; dry and wet bottom; gradually variable channel width | Rectangular channel L = 21.2 m, W = 1.4 m, Lr = 8.5 m, S = −0.005, 0, 0.01; smooth | h_{u} = 0.1–0.4 mh _{d} = 0, < 0.02 m;h _{d} = 0.0635 m forS = −0.005 | 0.6 m | University of Thrace, Xanthi, Greece | 2004 | Water depth time series at ten positions | Pressure transducers | ✗ | 2D SWE FD |

Natale et al. [157] | Total; dry bottom; sluice gates (gate 1: x = 8.4 m, a = 0.04 m; gate 2: x = 9.3 m, a = 0.02 m) | Rectangular channel L = 9.3 m, W = 0.48 m, Lr = 3.36 m, S = 0; rough | h_{u} = 0.2 m | 0.48 m | University of Pavia, Italy | 2004 | Water depth profiles | Video camera (25 fps); | ✗ | 1D SWE FV (n = 0.12 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Bukreev [158] | Total; dry and wet bottom; bottom step (δ = 0.038, 0.056 m; l = 0.036, 0.257 m) | Rectangular channel L = 7.2 m, W = 0.2 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.066, 0.13,0.15 m h _{d} = 0.055 m | 0.2 m | Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk | 2005 | Water-level profiles | Piezometers; wave recorders; video camera | ✗ | |

Bukreev [159] | Partial; dry and wet bottom; bottom step (δ = 0.055 m; l = 0.69 m) | Tank and channel (closed end) L = 7.2 m, W = 0.202 m, Lr = 1.32 m, Wr = 1 m; S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.145, 0.16 mh _{d} = N.A. | 0.1 m | Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk | 2006 | Water-level profiles; depth hydrographs and longitudinal and vertical velocities at three cross sections | Video camera; PIV | ✗ | |

Aureli et al. [14,72] | Partial; dry and wet bottom; bottom sill | Tank L = 2.6 m, W = 1.2 m, Lr = 0.8 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.15 mh _{d} = 0.01 m | 0.3 m | University of Parma, Italy | 2008 | Water surface profiles; water depth hydrographs | Video camera (3 fps); ultrasonic distance meters | ✓ | 2D SWE FV (n = 0.007 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Gusev et al. [160] | Total; wet bottom; bottom step (δ = 0.05 m) | Rectangular channel L = 7.06 m, W = 0.202 m Lr = 4.76 m, Wr = 1.0 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.205 mh _{d} = 0.01–0.205 m | 0.202 m | Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk | 2008 | Free-surface hydrographs at two points; velocity of the front behind the step; velocity of the front reflected by the step | Wavemeters | ✗ | |

Bukreev et al. [161] | Partial (vertically); wet bottom; lateral constriction and bottom step (b = 0.06 m, l = 0.38 m, δ = 0.072 m) | Rectangular channel L = 8.3 m, W = 0.20 m, Lr = N.A., S = 0; smooth | 0.08(h_{u}–δ) < h_{d}< 1.1(h _{u}–δ) | 0.06 m | Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk | 2008 | Dimensionless bore depth and propagation speed | Wavemeters | ✗ | |

Evangelista et al. [162,163] | Total; dry bottom; bottom step (δ = 0.05 m) | Rectangular channel L = 9 m, W = 0.4 m, Lr = N.A., S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.4 m | 0.4 m | University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Italy | 2011 | Water surface profiles at two selected times | Video camera (30 fps) | ✗ | 1D SWE FV (n = 0.0125 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Ozmen-Cagatay and Kocaman [164] | Total; dry bottom; trapezoidal bottom sill (δ = 0.075 m, l = 1 m) | Rectangular channel L = 8.9 m, W = 0.3 m, Lr = 4.65 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.25 m | 0.3 m | Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey | 2011 | Water surface profiles at selected times | Video cameras (50 fps) | ✗ | 2D RANS, VOF FV; 1D SWE FV |

Ozmen-Cagatay and Kocaman [165] | Total; dry bottom; trapezoidal contraction (0.95 m long, contraction ratio: 1/3) | Rectangular channel L = 8.9 m, W = 0.3 m, Lr = 4.65 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.25 m | 0.3 m | Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey | 2012 | Water surface profiles at selected times; water depth hydrographs at seven points | Video cameras (50 fps) | ✗ | 3D RANS, VOF FV |

Kocaman and Ozmen-Cagatay [166] | Total; dry bottom; triangular obstruction (0.95 m long, contraction ratio: 1/3) | Rectangular channel L = 8.9 m, W = 0.3 m, Lr = 4.65 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.25 m | 0.3 m | Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey | 2012 | Water surface profiles at selected times; water depth hydrographs at six points | Video cameras (50 fps) | ✗ | 3D RANS, VOF FV |

Ozmen-Cagatay et al. [167] | Total; dry bottom; triangular bump (δ = 0.075 m, l = 1 m) | Rectangular channel L = 8.9 m, W = 0.3 m, Lr = 4.65 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.25 m | 0.3 m | Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey | 2014 | Water surface profiles at selected times; water depth hydrographs at six points | Video cameras (50 fps) | ✗ | 2D RANS, VOF FV; 1D SWE FV |

Degtyarev et al. [168] | Total; wet bottom; contraction at the dam location | Rectangular channel L = 10 m, W = 0.254 m Reservoir Lr = 5 m, Wr = 0.38 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.4 mh _{d} = 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.1, 0.12, 0.14, 0.16, 0.18, 0.2 m | 0.254 m | State University of Novosibirsk, Russia | 2014 | Water depth hydrographs at three points | Conductive wave meters | ✗ | 1D SWE (n = 0) |

Wood and Wang [169] | Total; dry bottom; 90° bend | Rectangular channel with 90° bend L = 6.72m, W = 0.273 m Reservoir Lr = 0.89 m, Wr = 0.89 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.2794 m | 0.29 m | University of Huston, Texas, USA | 2015 | Water depth hydrographs at four points | Resistance-type water level measurements | ✗ | 2D SWE FD (n = 0.009 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Hooshyaripor and Tahershamsi [90] | Total; dry bottom; reservoir with sloping sides (side angle = 30°, 45°, 60°) | Rectangular channel L = 9.3 m, W = 0.51 m, S = 0; smooth Reservoir Lr = 4.5 m, Wr = 2.25 m | h_{u} = 0.35 m | 0.51 m | Amirkabir University of Technology, Iran | 2015 | Water depth hydrographs at 11 points; velocity and discharge hydrographs at six locations | Ultrasonic distance meters, ADV | ✗ | 3D RANS, VOF FV (n = 0.011 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Kikkert et al. [170] | Total; dry bottom; sudden contraction at the gate site | Rectangular channel L = 6.6 m, W = 0.3 m, S = 1/20; smooth Reservoir Lr = 7.5 m, Wr = 2 m, S = 0 | h_{u} = 0.35 m | 0.3 m | Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | 2015 | Water depth time series; water depth profiles and wave propagation time | Video cameras (90 fps) | ✗ | 3D RANS, VOF FV (ε = 5 × 10 ^{−5} m) |

Chen et al. [171] | Total; wet bottom; Y-shaped junction | Rectangular channels with junction (Y-shaped; 30°, 45°, 60°, 90°) Side channel (with dam): L = 2.5 m, W = 0.3 m, Lr = 1 m Main channel: L = 5 m, W = 0.3 m S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.3, 0.4, 0.45 mh _{d} = N.A. | 0.3 m | Sichuan University, Chengdu, China; | 2019 | Water depth and pressure hydrographs; velocity field | Video cameras; PIV; pressure gauges | ✗ | 3D RANS, VOF FV (n = 0.008 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Kobayashi et al. [172] | Total; wet bottom; meanders | Meandering rectangular channel L = 16.1 m, W = 0.8 m, Lr = 1.5 m, S = 1/600; smooth | h_{u} = 0.285 mh _{d} = 0.107, 0.147 m | 0.8 m | University of Hiroshima, Japan | 2019 | Flow depth transversal profiles in eight cross-sections | Wave gauges | ✗ | 1D SWE MOC |

Kavand et al. [173] | Total; dry bottom; three 90° bends | Rectangular channel W = 0.2 m, S = 0; smooth and rough | h_{u} = 0.25, 0.35,0.45, 0.55 m | 0.2 m | University of Ahvaz, Iran | 2020 | Wave front celerity; wave height al the bend sides | Video camera | ✗ | (ε = 0, 10, 16, 20 × 10 ^{−3} m) |

Kocaman et al. [174] | Total; dry bottom; triangular and trapezoidal channel contractions | Rectangular channel L = 8.9 m, W = 0.3 m, Lr = 4.65 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.25 m | 0.3 m | Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey | 2020 | Free surface profiles; flow depth hydrographs | Video cameras (50 fps) | ✗ | 3D RANS, VOF FV; 2D SWE FV |

Ansari et al. [121] | Total; dry and wet bottom; triangular bottom sill | Rectangular channel L = 3.7 m, W = 0.6 m, Lr = 0.6 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.2 mh _{d} = 0, 0.07 m | 0.6 m | University of Zanjan, Iran | 2021 | Water surface profiles | Video camera (60 fps) | ✗ | 3D RANS SPH |

Ismail et al. [175] | Total; wet bottom; Y-shaped junction | Rectangular channels with a Y-shaped junction Side channel (with dam): L = 1.83 m, W = 0.304 m, Lr = 0.91 m, S = 0; smooth Main channel: L = 3.35 m, W = 0.304 m | h_{u} = 0.25, 0.4, 0.5 mh _{d} = 0.0425, 0.044,0.052 m (flow rate and velocity in the main channel: Q = 1.87–2.64 l/s; v = 0.145–0.181 m/s) | 0.304 m | University of South Carolina, Columbia, USA | 2021 | Outflow hydrographs downstream of the junction; water surface elevation at the outlet | Ultrasonic distance meters | ✗ | |

Gamero et al. [176] | Total; dry and wet bottom; closed downstream end; Gaussian bottom sill in the reservoir | Rectangular channel L = 15 m, W = 0.405 m, Lr = 9.275 m, S = 0.0015; smooth | h_{u} = 0.302, 0.3 mh _{d} = 0, 0.12,0.18, 0.24 m | 0.405 m | University of Córdoba, Spain | 2022 | Piezometric measures along the centerline of the obstacle; water surface profiles | Piezometers; video cameras (25 fps) | ✓ | 2D VAM Hybrid FV–FD (n = 0.01 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Kobayashi et al. [177] | Total; wet bottom; meanders | Straight rectangular channel L = 16.1 m, W = 0.4 m, Lr = 1.68 m, S = 0; smooth Meandering rectangular channel L = 16.1 m, W = 0.39 m, Lr = 1.66 m, S = 0; smooth | Straight h _{u} = 0.3 mh _{d} = 0.02 mMeandering h _{u} = 0.285 mh _{d} = 0.107 m | Straight 0.4 m Meand. 0.39 m | University of Hiroshima, Japan | 2022 | Wave height time series in eight cross-sections; free surface profiles at selected times | Wave gauges | ✗ | 2D SWE; 3D RANS, VOF FV |

Vosoughi et al. [178,179] | Total; silted-up reservoir (multiphase flow); dry and wet bottom; semi-circular bottom sill (δ = 0.045 m, l = 0.09 m; δ = 0.075 m, l = 0.15 m) | Rectangular channel L = 6 m, W = 0.3 m, Lr = 1.52 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.3 m(7 sediment depths: 0.03–0.24 m) h _{d} = 0, 0.02,0.04, 0.05 m | 0.3 m | University of Shiraz, Iran | 2022 | Water surface profiles; profile of the saturated sediment layer | Video cameras (50 fps) | ✓ | 3D NSE, VOF FV |

^{1}L = facility length; W = facility width; Lr = reservoir length; Wr = reservoir width (if different from W); S = bottom slope; θ = inclination angle; δ = bottom step/bump height; l = singularity length; b = constriction width;

^{2}h

_{u}= upstream water depth; h

_{d}= downstream water depth;

^{3}ADV = acoustic Doppler velocimeter; PIV = particle image velocimetry;

^{4}✗ = not freely available; ✓ = freely available;

^{5}Approach: 1D = one-dimensional; 2D = two-dimensional; 3D = three-dimensional–Mathematical model: NSE = Navier–Stokes equations; RANS = Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations; SWE = shallow water equations; VOF = volume of fluid–Numerical method: FD = finite difference; FV = finite volume; MOC = method of characteristics; SPH = smoothed particle hydrodynamics–n = Manning roughness coefficient; ε = surface roughness; N.A. = not available.

(1) Reference | (2) Dam-Break Type | (3) Setup Characteristics ^{1} | (4) Initial Conditions ^{2} | (5) Breach Width | (6) Laboratory | (7) Year | (8) Measured Data | (9) Measuring Technique ^{3} | (10) Data ^{4} | (11) Numerical Simulation ^{5} |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Greenspan and Young [180] | Total; dry bottom; impact on containment dykes (θ = 90°, 60°, 30°; variable dyke distance from the gate) | Tank L = 1.22 m, W = 0.23 m, Lr = 0.23 m; S = 0; smooth | h_{u} ≤ 0.2032 m | 0.23 m | Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA | 1978 | Spillage fraction dependence on dyke inclination | Video recording | ✗ | 1D SWE MOC |

Sicard and Nicollet [181] | Total; wet bottom; impact on a vertical wall | Rectangular channel L = 18 m, W = 0.6 m, Lr = 3 m; S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = N.A.h _{d} = N.A. | 0.6 m | Laboratoire National d’Hydraulique, Chatou, France | 1983 | Water depth and celerity of the incoming wave; pressure time series on the wall at seven elevations | Piezoresistive pressure transducers | ✗ | |

Ramsden [182] | Total; dry and wet bottom; impact on a vertical wall | Rectangular channel L = 36.6 m, W = 0.396 m, Lr = 8.97 m; S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.502 mh _{d} = 0 m;h _{u} = 0.4801 mh _{d} = 0.28 m | 0.396 m | California Institute of Technology, USA | 1996 | Impact force; pressure at the wall; position of the wave; 2D profiles near the wall | Force and pressure transducers; contact probes; Argon-ion laser; video camera (300 fps) | ✗ | |

Liu et al. [183] | Total; wet bottom; impact on a vertical porous structure (0.29 m long, 0.37 m high, located 0.02 m downstream of the gate; 2 porous materials) | Tank L = 0.892 m, W = 0.44 m, Lr = 0.28 m; S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.35, 0.25, 0.15 mh _{d} = 0.02 m | 0.44 m | Cornell University, Ithaca, USA | 1999 | Water surface profiles at 12 times; water level time series in the center of the porous structure | Camera (10 fps); wave gauge | ✗ | 2D RANS, VOF FD |

Gallati and Braschi [55] | Total; dry bottom; impact on obstacle (0.03 × 0.06 m, 0.17 m downstream of the dam) | Tank L = 1.2 m, W = 0.03 m, Lr = 0.3 m, rough | h_{u} = 0.1 mh _{d} = 0 m | 0.03 m | University of Pavia, Italy | 2000 | Water surface profiles | Video camera (25 fps) | ✗ | 2D EUL SPH |

Barakhnin et al. [184] | Total; wet bottom; impact on a reflective vertical wall | Tank L = l _{1} + l_{2}, Lr = l_{1}50 < l _{2}/h_{d} < 90l _{1} = N.A. | 0.5 ≤ (h_{u}–h_{d})/h_{d} ≤ 1.4h _{d} = 0.03, 0.04 m | 0.06 m | Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk | 2001 | Maximum water level at the wall, splash-up profile, free surface profiles | Video camera (25 fps), resistive wavemeter | ✗ | 1D BOU |

Soares-Frazão and Zech [185,186] | Partial; wet bottom; impact on an isolated building (0.4 × 0.8 m) | Rectangular channel L = 36 m; W = 3.6 m, Lr = 6.9 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.4 mh _{d} = 0.02 m | 1 m | Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium | 2002 | Water depth hydrographs at six locations; velocity fields at selected times; flow velocity time series at the gauge points | Resistive level gauges; ADV; video camera (40 fps) | ✓ | (n = 0.01 s m^{−1/3}) |

Brufau et al. [187]; Méndez et al. [188] | Partial (asymmetrical); wet bottom; pyramidal obstacle | Tank L = 2.65 m, W = 2.615 m, Lr = 1.3, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.5 mh _{d} = 0.1–0.3 m | 0.293 m | University of La Coruña, Spain | 2002 | Water depth time series at several points | N.A. | ✗ | 2D SWE FV |

Ciobataru et al. [189] | Total; dry bottom; impact on pillars (square: 0.12 m × 0.12 m; circular: D = 0.14 m) | Tank L = 16.62 m, W = 0.61 m, Lr = 5.9 m; S = 0; smooth and rough | h_{u} = 0.1–0.3 m | 0.61 m | University of Washington, Seattle, USA | 2003 | Net force on the structure and velocity hydrographs, free surface profile at mid-channel | Load cell; LDV; PIV | ✗ | 3D NSE ELMMC |

Trivellato [190]; Bertolazzi and Trivellato [191] | Total, dry bottom; impact on a vertical wall | Rectangular channel L = 6 m, W = 0.5 m, 0 ≤ S ≤ 25° | h_{f} = 0.04 mu _{0} = 2.77 ms^{−1} | 0.5 m | University of Trento, Italy | 2003 | Maximum run-up, pressure at the wall, toe velocity and depth, wall force | Pressure transducers; video camera (25 fps) | ✗ | 2D EUL FV |

Campisano et al. [192] | Total; dry bottom; downstream sediment deposit (0.03 m volcanic sand thickness) | Rectangular channel L = 3.9 m, W = 0.15 m, Lr = 1.3 m; S = 0.145%; rough | h_{u} = 0.10–0.13 m | 0.15 m | University of Catania, Italy | 2004 | Water depth hydrographs, sediment bed profiles | Video camera (25 fps) | ✗ | 1D SWE FD (n = 0.0105 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Gallati and Sturla [63] | Partial; dry bottom; impact on a square obstacle | Tank L = 1.4 m, W = 0.5 m, Lr = 0.4 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.08 m | 0.155 m | University of Pavia, Italy | 2004 | Images of the flow field in the flood plain at different time steps | Video camera (25 fps) | ✗ | 2D SWE SPH (n = 0.01 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Hu and Kashiwagi [193] | Total; dry bottom; impact on a vertical wall | Tank L = 1.18 m, W = 0.12 m, Lr = 0.68 m; S = 0 | h_{u} = 0.12 | 0.12 m | Kyushu University, Japan | 2004 | Pressure hydrograph at the wall | Pressure transducers; video camera | ✗ | 2D NSE CIP, FD |

Raad and Bidoe [194] | Total; wet bottom; impact on vertical columns (square: 0.12 m × 0.12 m, 0.75 m high) | Tank L = 1.6 m, W = 0.61 m, Lr = 0.4 m; S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.3 mh _{d} = 0.01 m | 0.61 m | University of Washington, Seattle, USA | 2005 | Net force on the structure and velocity hydrographs | Load cell; LDV | ✗ | 3D NSE ELMMC |

Arnason [195] | Total; dry bottom; impact on columns (square: 0.12 m × 0.12 m; circular: D = 0.029, 0.0606, 0.14 m) | Tank L = 16.62 m, W = 0.61 m, Lr = 5.9 m; S = 0; smooth and rough | h_{u} = 0.10–0.40 m | 0.61 m | University of Washington, Seattle, USA | 2005 | Net force on the structure and velocity hydrographs; free surface profiles | Load cell; LDV; video camera; PIV | ✗ | |

Kleefsman et al. [196]; Issa and Violeau [197]; Larese et al. [198] | Total; dry bottom; impact on an obstacle | Tank L = 3.22 m, W = 1.0 m, Lr = 1.228 m; S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.55 m | 1.0 m | MARIN (Maritime Research Institute The Netherlands) | 2005 | Water depth, pressure and force hydrographs | Height probes; pressure transducers | ✗ | 3D NSE, VOF FV; 3D NSE SPH, PFEM |

Liang et al. [199] | Partial; wet bottom; impact on a column (circular: D = 0.35 m) | Tank L = 25 m, W = 1.6 m, Lr = 2.5 m S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.235 mh _{d} = 0.059 m | 0.15 m | Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands | 2007 | Water depth hydrographs; front position and velocity | Video camera (25 fps) | ✗ | 2D SWE FD (n = 0.01 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Aureli et al. [14] | Partial; dry and wet bottom; insubmersible obstacle | Tank L = 2.6 m, W = 1.2 m, Lr = 0.8 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.15 mh _{d} = 0.01 m | 0.3 m | University of Parma, Italy | 2008 | Water surface profiles; water depth hydrographs | Video camera (3 fps); ultrasonic distance meters | ✓ | 2D SWE FV (n = 0.007 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Nouri [200]; Nistor et al. [201]; Nouri et al. [202] | Total; dry bottom; impact on columns (square: 0.2 m × 0.2 m; circular: D = 0.32 m), constrictions | Rectangular channel L = 10.6 m, W = 2.7 m Lr = 5.58 m, S = 0; rough | h_{u} = 0.5, 0.75, 0.85,1.0 m | 2.7 m | Canadian Hydraulics Center, Ottawa, Canada | 2008 | Pressures, water level and impact force hydrographs; point velocities | Capacitance wave gauges; load cells; dynamometer; pressure transducers; ADV | ✗ | |

Bukreev and Zykov [203] | Total; wet bottom; vertical plate | Rectangular channel L = 8.2 m W = 0.2 m Lr > 1.4 m, S = 0; rough | h_{u}/h_{d} = 0.186, 0.419, 0.605 | 0.2 m | Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk | 2008 | Water depth and force hydrographs, velocity in the vertical plane | Wavemeters; force transducer; PIV | ✗ | |

Arnason et al. [204] | Total; wet bottom; impact on vertical columns (square: 0.12 m × 0.12 m; circular: D = 0.14 m; 5.2 m downstream of the gate) | Tank L = 16.6 m, W = 0.6 m, Lr = 5.9 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.10–0.3 m(Δh = 0.025m) h _{d} = 0.02 m | 0.6 m | University of Washington, Seattle, USA | 2009 | Water depth and velocity hydrographs at different locations; time series of the horizontal force on the columns | Laser induced fluorescence technique; particle image and LDV; load cell | ✗ | |

Cruchaga et al. [205] | Total; dry bottom; obstacles of different shapes | Tank L = 0.456 m, W = 0.228m Lr = 0.114 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.228 m | 0.228 m | University of Santiago, Chile | 2009 | Water depth profiles at different times | Video camera | ✗ | 2D NSE, ETILT FE |

Hu and Sueyoshi [206] | Total; dry bottom; impact on a vertical wall | Tank L = 0.8 m, W = 0.2 m, Lr ~ 0.24 m, S = 0; smooth; closed downstream end | h_{u} = 0.42 m(estimated) | 0.2 m | Kyushu University, Japan | 2010 | Wave front position; water surface profiles at different times | Video camera | ✗ | 2D NSE CIP, MPS |

Yang et al. [75] | Total; dry bottom; impact against a brick (0.22 m × 0.12 m, placed 0.6 m downstream of the gate) | Rectangular channel L = 7 m, W = 0.3 m, Lr = 2 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} ≤ 0.123 m | 0.3 m | Tsinghua University, Beijing, China | 2010 | Critical reservoir depth h_{u} causing brick movement | N.A. | ✗ | 3D RANS, VOF FV |

Aureli et al. [207] | Partial; dry and wet bottom; insubmersible obstacle | Tank L = 2.6 m, W= 1.2 m, Lr = 0.8 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.030–0.064 mh _{d} = 0.0068–0.0157m | 0.3 m | University of Parma, Italy | 2011 | Water depth hydrographs; free surface | Video camera (6.5 fps); ultrasonic distance meters | ✗ | |

Al-Faesly et al. [208] | Total; dry and wet bottom; impact on structural models (square and circular: 0.305 m, placed 4.92 m downstream of the gate); effect of mitigation walls (flat or curved) | Rectangular channel L = 14.56 m, W = 2.7 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.55, 0.85, 1.15 mh _{d} = N.A. | 2.7 m | University of Ottawa, Canada | 2012 | Base shear forces and moments on structural models; acceleration and displacement at the top edge; pressures at 10 points; water depth hydrographs on models and channel; wave front velocity | Load cell; accelerometer; displacement transducer; pressure transducers; capacitance wave gauges; free-standing wave gauges; video camera | ✗ | |

Oertel and Bung [87] | Total; dry bottom; submersible obstacle | Rectangular channel L = 22 m, W = 0.3 m, Lr = 13 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.1, 0.2,0.3, 0.4 m | 0.3 m | Bergische University Wuppertal, Germany | 2012 | Drag force on the obstacle; water depth profiles and velocity field at selected times | Ultrasonic distance meters; video camera (1000 fps); PIV | ✗ | 2D RANS, VOF FV (ε = 0.0015 × 10 ^{−3} m) |

Lara et al. [209] | Total; wet bottom; impact against a solid square prism (0.12 m × 0.12 m) | Tank L = 1.6 m, W = 0.6 m, Lr = 0.4 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.3 mh _{d} = 0.01 m | 0.6 m | University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain | 2012 | Flow velocity time series at a selected point; time history of the net force on the prism | LDV; load cell | ✗ | 3D RANS, VOF FV |

Triatmadja and Nurhasanah [210] | Total; wet bottom; impact on a building; effects of a barrier | Rectangular channel L = 24 m, W = 1.45 m, Lr = 8 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.6, 0.7, 0.8 mh _{d} = 0.02 m | 1.45 m | Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia | 2012 | Water depth hydrographs; force on the structure | Wave gauges; load cell | ✗ | |

Aguíñiga et al. [211] | Total; wet bottom; impact on a vertical wall placed 2.18 m downstream of the gate | Rectangular channel L = 4.93 m, W = 0.305 m, Lr = 0.305 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = N.A.h _{d} = 0.051, 0.076, 0.102 m(bore height: 0.157, 0.203, 0.264 m) | 0.305 m | Texas A&M University, Kingsville, USA | 2013 | Maximum force on the wall | Spring system and video camera | ✗ | |

Nakao et al. [212] | Total; wet bottom; model T-girder bridges (placed 7.5 m downstream of the gate) | Rectangular channel L = 30 m, W = 1 m Lr = 12 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.617 mh _{u} = 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 mh _{d} = N.A. | 1 m | Public Works Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan | 2013 | Tsunami height and reaction force in time; dynamic pressure at the girder | Video cameras; load cells; wave gauges; pressure gauges | ✗ | |

Lobovský et al. [213] | Tank; dry bottom; impact against the downstream end | Tank L = 1.61 m, W = 0.15 m, Lr = 0.6 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.3, 0.6 m | 0.6 m | Technical University of Madrid, Spain | 2014 | Water surface profiles; wave front propagation; water level hydrographs at four locations; pressure hydrographs at five points | Video camera (300 fps); pressure transducers | ✓ | |

Ratia et al. [214] | Total; wet bottom; closed downstream end; bridge models | Rectangular channel L = 6 m, W = 0.24 m, Lr = 1.56 m, Wr = 0.84 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.169–0.227 mh _{d} = 0.009–0.011 m | 0.24 m | University of Zaragoza, Spain | 2014 | Water depth hydrographs in two positions | Water depth gauges | ✓ | 2D SWE FV |

Aureli et al. [215] | Partial; dry bottom; impact on a insubmersible obstacle (0.3 m × 0.155 m) | Tank L = 2.6 m, W = 1.2 m, Lr = 0.8 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.07–0.13 m | 0.3 m | University of Parma, Italy | 2015 | Impact force | Load cell | ✓ | 2D SWE FV (n = 0.007 s m ^{−1/3})3D RANS, VOF FV; 3D NSE SPH |

Kocaman and Ozmen-Cagatay [216] | Total; wet bottom; impact on the downstream vertical end | Rectangular channel L = 8.9 m, W = 0.3 m, Lr = 4.65 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.25 mh _{d} = 0.025, 0.1 m | 0.3 m | Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey | 2015 | Water surface profiles; water depth hydrographs | Video cameras (50 fps) | ✗ | 2D RANS, VOF FV; 1D SWE FV |

Liao et al. [217] | Total; dry bottom; impact on an elastic structure (0.1 m high, 0.4 m downstream of the gate) | Tank L = 0.8 m, W = 0.2 m, Lr = 0.2 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 m | 0.2 m | Kyushu University, Japan | 2015 | Water surface profiles and deformation of the structure (three markers); longitudinal marker displacement hydrographs | Video camera (1000 fps) | ✗ | 2D NSE, VOF Coupled CIP, FD–FE (interaction fluid–structure) |

Liang et al. [218] | Total; wet bottom; bridge | Rectangular channel L = 35.5 m, W = 1 m, Lr = 5.5 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.4 mh _{d} = 0.198 m;h _{u} = 0.204 mh _{d} = 0.105 m | 1 m | Hohai University, Nanjing, China | 2016 | Water depth and flow velocity time series in seven locations; pressure time series on the bridge piers | Wave gauges; ADV; pressure sensors | ✗ | 2D SWE FV (n = 0.01 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Mohd et al. [219] | Total; dry bottom; impact on a vertical cylinder (square: 0.05 m × 0.05 m; circular D = 0.05 m) | Tank L = 0.8 m, W = 0.2 m, Lr = 0.2 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.4 m | 0.2 m | Kyushu University, Japan | 2017 | Flow images; wave front celerity; water depth hydrographs | Video cameras | ✗ | 3D LBM |

Kamra et al. [220] | Total; dry bottom; impact on the closed downstream end | Tank L = 0.8 m, W = 0.2 m, Lr = 0.2 m; S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.2 m | 0.2 m | Kyushu University, Japan | 2018 | Water surface profiles; pressure hydrographs; wave front position | Pressure sensors | ✗ | 3D RANS, VOF FV |

Liu et al. [221] | Partial; dry bottom; building (0.4 m × 0.2 m × 0.3 m, locked and unlocked door scenarios) | Rectangular channel L = 40 m, W = 2.2 m, Wr = 3.5 m, Lr = 11.5 m; S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.15, 0.2 m | 0.8 m | Tsinghua University, Beijing, China | 2018 | Water level hydrographs | Pressure gauges; ultrasonic distance meters | ✗ | |

Martínez-Aranda et al. [222] | Partial; dry bottom; obstacles, singularities, and a bridge model | Reservoir and rectangular channel L = 6 m, W = 0.24 m, Lr = 1.57 m; Wr = 0.81 m S ≈ 0 (in the first 3.26 m downstream of the gate), 0.0404 downstream; smooth | h_{u} = 0.055, 0.13 m | 0.24 m | University of Zaragoza, Spain | 2018 | Free surface; free surface profiles; flow depth time series | RGB-D sensor | ✓ | 2D SWE FV (n = 0.008–0.012 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Stamataki et al. [223] | Total; dry bottom; building | Rectangular channel L = 20 m, W = 1.2 m, Lr = 2.9 m, S = 1/20; smooth and rough | h_{u} = 0.1, 0.2 m | 1.2 m | University College London, UK | 2018 | Water depth and hydrodynamic force hydrographs; wave front celerity | Wave gauges; ultrasonic distance meters; load cell; pressure sensors; video camera (250 fps) | ✗ | 2D RANS, VOF FV |

Tinh et al. [224] | Total; dry and wet bottom; impact on a vertical structure | Rectangular channel L = 17.6 m, W = 0.3 m, Lr = 3 m, S = 1/20; smooth | h_{u} = 0.15 mh _{d} = 0;h _{u} = 0.2 mh _{d} = 0.05 m | 0.3 m | Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan | 2018 | Water depth hydrographs; water surface profiles; flow images | Ultrasonic distance meters; video camera | ✗ | |

Demir et al. [225] | Total; dry bottom; impact on the downstream end; interaction with a deformable plate (3 different heights) | Tank L = 0.6 m, W = 0.2 m, Lr = 0.15 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.3 m | 0.2 m | Technical University of Erzurum, Turkey | 2019 | Free surface profiles; tip displacement of the plate; pressure in time at the downstream end | Video camera (25 fps); pressure transducers | ✗ | 3D EUL Coupled SPH–FE (interaction fluid–structure) |

Ghodoosipour et al. [226,227] | Total; dry and wet bottom; impact on a horizontal transversal pipe (D = 0.1 m) | Rectangular channel L = 30.1 m, W = 1.5 m, Lr = 21.55 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 mh _{d} = 0, 0.03, 0.06,0.08, 0.12, 0.17 m | 1.5 m | University of Ottawa, Canada | 2019 | Water depth time series at three locations; wave front celerity; flow velocity at a location; time series of the hydrodynamic force on the pipe | Capacitance wave gauges; ADV; dynamometer; video cameras (70 fps) | ✗ | |

Kamra et al. [228] | Total; dry bottom; impact on a vertical cylinder (square and circular section, square: 0.05 m × 0.05 m, circular: D = 0.05 m) | Tank L = 0.8 m, W = 0.2 m, Lr = 0.2 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.2 m | 0.2 m | Kyushu University, Japan | 2019 | Flow images; pressure hydrographs | Video camera (1500 fps); piezoresistive pressure sensors | ✗ | |

Mokhtar et al. [229] | Total; wet bottom; impact on a vertical seawall (solid or perforated, located 9 m downstream of the gate) | Rectangular channel L = 100 m, W = 1.5 m, Lr = 44 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.55, 0.6, 0.65, 0.7, 0.75 mh _{d} = 0.05 m | 1.5 m | National Hydraulic Research Institute, Selangor, Malaysia | 2019 | Wave depth and pressure hydrographs; flow velocity hydrographs; flow images | Resistance wave gauges; pressure sensors; ADV; video camera (240 fps) | ✗ | |

Dutta et al. [230,231] | Total; dry bottom; impact on a vertical structure | Rectangular channel L = 6 m, W = 0.3 m, Lr = 4 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.2, 0.25, 0.3, 0.35, 0.4 m | 0.3 m | Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur | 2020 | Flow velocity at two locations; water surface profiles | ADV; video camera | ✗ | 3D RANS, VOF FV |

Farahmandpour et al. [232] | Total; dry bottom; impact on a vertical structure | Rectangular channel L = 10 m, W = 2.1 m S = 0; smooth Reservoir (cylindrical, D = 3 m) | h_{u} = 0.5, 1, 1.25,1.5, 1.75, 2 m | 3 m | Universiti Teknologi Malaysia | 2020 | Flow depth time series at two locations; pressure time series on the face of the structure; wave front celerity | Capacitance wave gauges; pressure cells; video cameras | ✗ | |

Kocaman et al. [233] | Partial; dry bottom; insubmersible obstacle (0.15 m × 0.08 m) | Tank L = 1 m, W = 0.5 m, Lr = 0.25 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.15 m | 0.1 m | Iskenderun Technical University, Turkey | 2020 | Wave front; water depth time series at five gauge points | Video camera (300 fps); ultrasonic distance meters | ✗ | 3D RANS, VOF FV |

Pratiwi et al. [234] | Partial; dry bottom; insubmersible oblique obstacle | Rectangular channel L = 10 m, W = 1 m S = 0; smooth Reservoir Lr = 2 m, Wr = 5.2 m | h_{u} = 0.4 m | 1 m | Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia | 2020 | Water depth and flow velocity at five locations | Ultrasonic distance meters; current meters | ✗ | |

Shen et al. [235] | Total; dry bottom; impact on a vertical wall | Rectangular channel L = 4 m, W = 0.4 m, Lr = 1 m S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.3 m | 0.4 m | Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China | 2020 | Pressure time series at five elevations on the vertical wall; water depth at the wall; flow images | Pressure transducers; capacitance wave gauge; video cameras (100 and 200 fps) | ✗ | |

Ansari et al. [121] | Total; dry bottom; circular cylinder, square cylinder, and cubic obstacle | Rectangular channel L = 3.7 m, W = 0.6 m, Lr = 0.6 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.2 m | 0.6 m | University of Zanjan, Iran | 2021 | Water surface profiles | Video camera (60fps) | ✗ | 3D (Molecular dynamics software) SPH |

Memarzadeh et al. [236] | Total; dry and wet bottom; impact against an overtoppable vertical wall (0.33 m from the gate) | Rectangular channel L = 1 m, W = 0.5 m, Lr = 0.32 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.25 m | 0.5 m | Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran | 2021 | Water surface profiles at selected times | Video camera | ✗ | 3D NSE SPH; 3D RANS, VOF FV (ε = 0.3 × 10 ^{−5} m) |

Del Gaudio et al. [237] | Total; dry bottom; impact on the end vertical wall | Rectangular channel L = 3 m, W = 0.4 m, Lr = 1.5 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.2 m | 0.4 m | University of Naples Federico II, Italy | 2022 | Water surface profiles at selected times; pressure time series at six locations on the end wall | Video cameras (164 fps); pressure transducers | ✗ | 1D SWE FV (C/g ^{1/2} = 22) |

Fang et al. [238] | Total; dry and wet bottom; effect of front buildings on the wave impact on buildings | Rectangular channel L = 17.3 m, W = 0.8 m, Lr = 0.625 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.35, 0.5, 0.65 m | 0.8 m | Tongji University, Shanghai, China | 2022 | Water depth time series at fourlocations; flow velocity at a gauge point; impact force on the building; pressure distribution on the impact front | Ultrasonic distance meters; ADV; multiaxial dynamometer; uniaxial force transducers | ✗ | |

Garoosi et al. [239] | Total; dry and wet bottom; closed downstream end; impact on a vertical wall | Rectangular channel L = 0.7 m, W = 0.4 m, Lr = 0.25 m, S = 0; smooth (dry bottom case); L = 1 m, W = 0.4 m, Lr = 0.25 m, S = 0; smooth (wet bottom case) | h_{u} = 0.15 m(dry bottom case); h _{u} = 0.20 m(wet bottom case) h _{d} = 0.02 m | 0.4 m | École Polytechnique de Montréal, Canada | 2022 | Water surface profiles; impact pressures on the downstream wall | Video camera (480 fps); pressure sensors | ✓ | 2D NSE, VOF FV; 2D NSE MPS |

Lin et al. [240] | Total; wet bottom; movable boulder (placed 1.87 m from the gate) | Rectangular channel L = 25 m, W = 0.3 m Lr = 0.25 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.23–0.35 mh _{d} = 0.03–0.06 m | 0.3 m | Tainan Hydraulics Laboratory, Taiwan | 2022 | Images of the bore impact on the boulder; boulder transportation process and boulder final posture | Video camera (1000 fps); inertial measurement unit | ✗ | |

Liu et al. [241] | Total; dry bottom; impact on a vertical wall (placed 0.85 m from the gate) | Tank L = 1.2 m, W = 0.44 m, Lr = 0.25 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.2, 0.25, 0.3 m | 0.44 m | University of Ottawa, Canada | 2022 | Images of the wave propagation; water depth time series at the vertical wall; dynamic pressure time series at ten points on the wall | Video camera (60 fps); ultrasonic distance meters; pressure transducers | ✓ | |

Wang et al. [242] | Total; dry bottom; impact on flood barriers (kinetic umbrellas, placed 1.11 m from the gate) | Tank L = 3 m, W = 0.56 m, Lr = 0.616 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 m | 0.616 m | Princeton University, USA | 2022 | Hydrodynamic force time history; flow images | Resistive load cell; video cameras | ✗ | 3D NSE Coupled SPH–FE (interaction fluid–structure) |

Xie and Shimozono [243] | Total; dry bottom; closed downstream end; impact on a vertical wall | Rectangular channel L = 1.52 m, W = 0.42 m, Lr = 0.51 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.08–0.14 m | 0.42 m | University of Tokyo, Japan | 2022 | Dam-break wave front celerity; dam-break wave front slope; impact pressure on a vertical wall | Video camera (500 fps); pressure sensors | ✓ | |

Yang et al. [131] | Total; dry and wet bottom; impact on a circular pier (D = 0.08 m) located 4 m downstream of the gate | Rectangular channel L = 10.72 m, W = 1.485 m, Lr = 4.58 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.13–0.483 m(dry bottom cases); h _{u} = 0.13–0.487 m(wet bottom cases); h _{d} = 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.1, 0.12, 0.14 m | 1.485 m | Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China | 2022 | Water depth hydrographs at five locations; forces and moments on the pier; pressure time series on 16 points on the front, back, and lateral sides of the pier | Wave gauges; load cell; pressure sensors | ✗ |

^{1}L = facility length; W = facility width; Lr = reservoir length; Wr = reservoir width (if different from W); S = bottom slope; θ = inclination angle; D = diameter;

^{2}h

_{u}= upstream water depth; h

_{d}= downstream water depth;

^{3}ADV = acoustic Doppler velocimeter; LDV = laser Doppler velocimeter; PIV = particle image velocimetry;

^{4}✗ = not freely available; ✓ = freely available;

^{5}Approach: 1D = one-dimensional; 2D = two-dimensional; 3D = three-dimensional–Mathematical model: BOU = Boussinesq equations; ETILT = edge-tracked interface locator technique; EUL = Euler equations; LBM = lattice Boltzmann method; NSE = Navier–Stokes equations; RANS = Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations; SWE = shallow water equations; VOF = volume of fluid–Numerical method: CIP = constrained interpolation profile; ELMMC = Eulerian–Lagrangian marker and micro cell method; FD = finite difference; FE = finite element; FV = finite volume; MOC = method of characteristics; MPS = moving particle semi-implicit; PFEM = particle finite element method; SPH = smoothed particle hydrodynamics–n = Manning roughness coefficient; ε = surface roughness; C = Chézy’s resistance factor; g = gravity acceleration; N.A. = not available.

(1) Reference | (2) Dam-Break Type | (3) Setup Characteristics ^{1} | (4) Initial Conditions ^{2} | (5) Breach Width | (6) Laboratory | (7) Year | (8) Measured Data | (9) Measuring Technique ^{3} | (10) Data ^{4} | (11) Numerical Simulation ^{5} |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Shige-eda and Akiyama [59] | Partial (asymmetric); dry bottom; impact on square pillars (0.06 m × 0.06 m) | Tank L = 4.8 m, Wr = 2.98 m Lr = 1.93 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.2 m | 0.5 m | Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu, Japan | 2003 | Wave front position, flow depths and surface velocity hydrographs at four positions, forces on selected pillars | Digital video tape recorder; particle tracking velocimetry; load cells | ✗ | 2D SWE FV (n < 0.07 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Soares-Frazão et al. [244]; Soares-Frazão and Zech [245] | Partial; wet bottom; three urban district layouts (blocks: 0.3 m × 0.3 m; streets: 0.1 wide) | Trapezoidal channel L = 35.8 m, W = 3.6 m, Lr = 6.75 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.40 mh _{d} = 0.011 m | 1 m | Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium | 2006 | Water levels time series at 64 points; water surface profiles; surface velocity measurements | Resistive water level gauges; digital imaging technique; Voronoï PTV technique | ✗ | 2D SWE FV (n = 0.01 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Szydlowski and Twarog [246] | Partial; dry bottom; urban district layout with aligned buildings (0.1 m sides) | Tank L = 6.75 m, W = 3 m, Lr = 3.0 m, Wr = 3.5 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.21 m | 0.5 m | Gdansk University of Technology, Poland | 2006 | Water depth time series at 11 locations | Pressure transducers; depth-control gauge | ✗ | 2D SWE FV (n = 0.018 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Yoon [247] Kim et al. [248] | Partial; dry bottom; 0.2 m × 0.2 m block arranged as two 3 × 3 groups | Plane L =30 m, W = 30 m, Lr = 5 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.3, 0.45 m | 1 m | Urban Flood Disaster Management Research Center, Seoul, South Korea | 2007 | Water depth time series at 17 points | Capacitance wave gauges | ✗ | 2D SWE (with porosity) FV (ε = 0.3–3 × 10 ^{−3} m) |

Albano et al. [249] | Total; dry bottom; two fixed buildings (0.3 m × 0.15 m × 0.3 m); three floating bodies (0.118 m × 0.045 m × 0.043 m, mass: 0.025 kg) | Rectangular channel L = 2.5 m, W = 0.5 m, Lr = 0.5 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.1 m | 0.5 m | Basilicata University, Italy | 2016 | Water depth time series at two locations (in front of the fixed obstacles); displacement of movable bodies | Resistive water depth gauges; cameras | ✗ | 3D EUL (Euler-Newton equations for the rigid body dynamics) SPH |

Norin et al. [250] | Total; dry bottom; staggered 0.1 m × 0.1 m parallelepipeds | Rectangular channel L = 7 m, W = 1.39 m, Lr = N.A., S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.225 m | 1.39 m | Scientific Research Institute of Power Structures, Russia | 2017 | Water level time series at two points; flow velocity profiles | Water level gauges; flow meters | ✗ | 2D SWE FV |

Guinot et al. [251,252] | Total; dry bottom; blocks (0.5 m × 0.75 m); two configurations | Rectangular channel L = 20 m, W = 1 m, Lr = N.A., S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.35 m | 1 m | Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium | 2018 | Water depth time series at selected locations | Ultrasonic distance meters | ✗ | 1D SWE (with porosity) FV |

Kusuma et al. [253] | Partial; dry bottom; blocks (0.1 m × 0.1 m); four configurations (1, 3, 5, 8 blocks) | Rectangular channel L = 10 m, W = 1 m, S = 0; smooth Reservoir Lr = 2 m, Wr = 4 m | h_{u} = 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 m | 1 m | Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia | 2019 | Water depth profiles at selected times; water depth and flow velocity hydrographs at selected locations | Wave probe and piezometers; current meter | ✗ | − |

Chumchan and Rattanadecho [254] | Partial; dry bottom; blocks (0.085 m sides); two configurations | Tank L = 0.984 m, W = 0.484 m, Lr = 0.24 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.15 m | 0.1 m | Thammasat University, Pathumthani, Thailand | 2020 | Flow images; wave front | Video camera (240 fps) | ✗ | 3D RANS, VOF FV, LB |

Dong et al. [255] | Partial; dry bottom; idealized urban street; six configurations (with buildings, greenbelt sections, sidewalks, and an underground sewer system) | Rectangular channel L = 20.5 m, W = 3 m, Lr = 4.5 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.09, 0.19, 0.29 m | 1 m | North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, China | 2021 | Water hydrographs at seven points; flow velocity time series at three points; drainage discharge time series at inlets | Ultrasonic distance meters; electromagnetic velocity meter; electromagnetic flowmeters | ✗ | 2D SWE FV (n = 0.009–0.011 s m ^{−1/3}) |

^{1}L = facility length; W = facility width; Lr = reservoir length; Wr = reservoir width (if different from W); S = bottom slope;

^{2}h

_{u}= upstream water depth; h

_{d}= downstream water depth;

^{3}PTV = particle tracking velocimetry;

^{4}✗ = not freely available;

^{5}Approach: 1D = one-dimensional; 2D = two-dimensional; 3D = three-dimensional–Mathematical model: EUL = Euler equations; RANS = Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations; SWE = shallow water equations; VOF = volume of fluid–Numerical method: FV = finite volume; LB = lattice Boltzmann; SPH = smoothed particle hydrodynamics–n = Manning roughness coefficient; ε = surface roughness; N.A. = not available.

**Table 5.**Experimental investigations of the propagation of tsunami bores (generated by the removal of a gate) in the swash zone.

(1) Reference | (2) Dam-Break Type | (3) Setup Characteristics ^{1} | (4) Initial Conditions ^{2} | (5) Breach Width | (6) Laboratory | (7) Year | (8) Measured Data | (9) Measuring Technique ^{3} | (10) Data ^{4} | (11) Numerical Simulation ^{5} |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Yeh and Ghazali [256], Yeh et al. [257] | Total; wet bottom; sloping beach starting 0.4 m downstream of the gate | Tank L = 9 m, W = 1.2 m, Lr = 2.97 m, S _{b} = 7.5°; smooth | h_{u}/h_{d}= 2.31h _{d} = 0.0975 m(fully developed bore); h _{u}/h_{d}= 1.72h _{d} = 0.0975 m(undular bore) | 1.2 m | University of Washington, Seattle, USA | 1988 | Longitudinal profile of the bore; maximum run-up height; bore celerity | Video camcorder and photo camera (laser-induced fluorescence); water sensors | ✗ | |

Petroff et al. [258] | Total; wet bottom; sloping beach; prismatic movable obstacles of different sizes and orientations | Rectangular channel L = 20 m, W = 0.6 m, Lr = 7 m; S _{b} = 0.1; smooth and rough | h_{u} = 0.3 mh _{d} = 0.02 m | 0.61 m | University of Washington, Seattle, USA | 2001 | Advection distance of obstacles | Video camera (18 fps) | ✗ | (beach roughened with sand: d_{50} = 0.84 × 10^{−3} m) |

Anh [259] | Total; dry bottom; adverse slope; Vetiver hedge 0.5 m thick (160–530 stems/m ^{2}) | Tank L > 12.5 m, W = 0.4 m, Lr = 6 m, S _{b} = 1/30; smooth | h_{u} = 0.35–0.5 m | 0.4 m | Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands | 2007 | Water depth hydrographs; overtopping discharge | Pressure transducers, water depth gauges | ✗ | |

Barnes et al. [260] | Total; wet bottom; sloping beach starting 4 m downstream of the gate | Rectangular channel L = 20 m, W = 0.45 m, Lr = 1 m, S _{b} = 0.1; smooth and rough | h_{u} = 0.65 mh _{d} = 0.065 m | 0.45 m | University of Aberdeen, UK | 2009 | Flow depth, bottom shear stress, and flow velocity time series | Acoustic displacement sensors; shear plate; PIV | ✗ | |

De Leffe et al. [261] | Total; dry bottom; sloping beach starting 1.15 m downstream of the gate | Rectangular channel L = 8 m, W = 1 m, Lr = 2.25 m, S _{b} = 0.1; smooth | h_{u} = 0.25 m | 1 m | École Centrale Nantes, France | 2010 | Flow depth time series at 2 gauge points | N.A. | ✗ | 1D, 2D SWE SPH (n = 0.001 s m ^{−1/3}) |

O’Donoghue et al. [262] | Total; wet bottom; sloping beach starting 3.8 m downstream of the gate | Rectangular channel L = 20 m, W = 0.45 m, Lr = 1 m, S _{b} = 0.1; smooth and rough | h_{u} = 0.65 mh _{d} = 0.06 m | 0.45 m | University of Aberdeen, UK | 2010 | Water depth time series at 25 locations; runup; flow velocity profiles at five cross-sections | Capacitance depth gauges; PIV | ✗ | 1D SWE FV (λ = 0.064, λ = 0.16) |

Kikkert et al. [263] | Total; wet bottom; sloping beach starting 4.82 m downstream of the gate | Rectangular channel L = 20 m, W = 0.45 m; Lr = 1 m, S _{b} = 1/10; rough | h_{u} = 0.6 mh _{d} = 0.062 m | 0.45 m | University of Aberdeen, UK | 2012 | Flow depth time series and velocity profiles at six cross-sections | Laser induced fluorescence and video camera; PIV | ✗ | |

Adegoke et al. [264] | Total; dry and wet bottom; sloping beach starting 2.7 m downstream of the gate | Rectangular channel L = 4.7 m, W = 0.4 m, Lr = 1 m, S _{b} = N.A.; smooth | h_{u} = 0.15–0.55 mh _{d} =0.05, 0.10, 0.15 m | 0.4 m | Liverpool John Moores University, UK | 2014 | Wave front velocity | Video Camera (40 fps); wave probes; pressure transducers | ✗ | |

Rahman et al. [265] | Total; dry bottom; building model (cubic, l = 0.08 m) placed 4 m from the gate; effect of solid and perforated sea walls (at various distances from the building model) | Rectangular channel L = 17.5 m, W = 0.6 m Lr = 5 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.15, 0.2,0.25, 0.3 m | 0.6 m | University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia | 2014 | Wave height time series at four positions; force time series on the building model | Wave probes; load cell | ✗ | |

Hartana and Murakami [266] | Total; wet bottom; adverse slope starting 5.5 m from the gate building models (0.2 × 0.2 × 0.26 m): solid and with 40% opening ratio | Rectangular channel L = 12 m, W = 0.4 m Lr = 5 m, S = 0, S _{b} = 1/40; smooth | h_{u} = 0.15, 0.2,0.25, 0.3 m h _{d} = 0.05 m | 0.4 m | University of Mataram, Indonesia | 2015 | Water depth hydrographs at three locations; flow velocity hydrographs at two locations; pressure time series at 15 points on the building faces | Video cameras; wave gauges; propeller current meters; pressure gauges | ✗ | 3D NSE, VOF FV, FE |

Chen et al. [267] | Total; two-dam-break systems (1 m apart) wet bottom; adverse slope of starting 3.006 m downstream of the first gate; swash-swash interaction | Rectangular channel L = 12.5 m, W = 0.3 m, Lr = 2.443 m, S = 0, S _{b} =1/10;smooth, rough adverse slope | h_{u}_{1} = 0.35 m, h_{u}_{2} = 0.5 m, h_{d} =0.035 m;h _{u}_{1} = 0.4 m, h_{u}_{2} = 0.4 m, h_{d} =0.04 m(time delay between the opening of the two gates: 1.5–6.5 s) | 0.3 m | Hong Kong University of the Science and Technology | 2016 | Water depth hydrographs at five locations; velocity profiles and water surface elevation | Acoustic distance sensors; PIV | ✗ | |

Chen et al. [268] | Total; dry bottom (wet bottom in the foreshore area); impact on a wharf model (three deck heights and eight wharf slopes) | Reservoir area 77 m ^{2}, capacity 50 m^{3}Rectangular channel L = 14 m, W = 1.2 m, S = 0, S _{b} = 30°; smooth | h_{u} = 0.3, 0.4, 0.5,0.6 m (h _{d} = 0.05 m); (different gate openings) | 1.2 m | University of Auckland, New Zealand | 2016 | Water level hydrographs at two locations; bore velocities; time series of uplift pressures at eight points on the wharf | Wave gauges; video camera (210 fps); pressure sensors | ✗ | |

Chen et al. [269] | Total; dry bottom (wet bottom in the foreshore area); impact on a wharf model and a protective vertical wall (four positions and three wall heights) | Reservoir Lr = 11 m, Wr = 7.3 m Rectangular channel L = 14 m, W = 1.2 m, S = 0, S _{b} = 30°; smooth | h_{u} = 0.3, 0.4, 0.6 m(h _{d} = 0.05 m);(different gate openings) | 1.2 m | University of Auckland, New Zealand | 2017 | Water level hydrographs at three locations; bore velocities; pressure time series on the wharf and the wall | Wave gauges; pressure sensors | ✗ | |

Esteban et al. [270] | Total; dry bottom (wet bottom in the foreshore area); sloping beach; impact on different overtoppable structures (high vertical wall, low block, dyke) | Rectangular channel L = 14 m, W = 0.41 m, Lr = 4.5 m; S = 0, S _{b} = 1/10; smooth | h_{u} = 0.3, 0.4, 0.6 m(h _{d} = 0, 0.1, 0.2 m) | 0.41 m | Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan | 2017 | Wave depth hydrographs at six locations; overtopping flow velocity; bore impact images | Wave gauges; electromagnetic current meters; video camera | ✗ | |

Dai et al. [271] | Total; wet bottom; sloping beach starting 3.006 m downstream of the first gate | Rectangular channel L = 12.5 m, W = 0.3 m, Lr = 1.006 m, Wr = 0.279 m; S = 0, S _{b} = 1/10; smooth, rough adverse slope | h_{u} = 0.5 mh _{d} =0.05 m | 0.3 m | Hong Kong University of the Science and Technology | 2017 | Flow depth and velocity hydrographs at five locations; entrained air | Combined laser-induced fluorescence and PIV; phase detection optical probe system; bubble image velocimetry | ✗ | |

Tar et al. [272] | Total; wet bottom; sloping beach; impact on a oil storage tank model and protective multiple flexible pipes | Rectangular channel L = 44 m, W = 0.7 m, Lr = 7.9 m; S = 0, S _{b} = 1/40 and 1/100; smooth | h_{u} = 0.65 mh _{d} = 0.4 m | 0.7 m | University of Osaka, Japan | 2017 | Flow velocity upstream and downstream of the flexible pipes; hydrodynamic force on the tank model; flow images | Electromagnetic velocity meters; load cell; video camera | ✗ | 3D RANS, VOF FV |

Chen et al. [273] | Total; dry bottom (wet bottom in the foreshore area); impact on the piles of a wharf model; protective effect of a vertical wall (four positions and three wall heights) | Reservoir Lr = 11 m, Wr = 7.3 m Rectangular channel L = 14 m, W = 1.2 m, S = 0, S _{b} = 30°; smooth | h_{u} = 0.3, 0.4, 0.6 m(h _{d} = 0.05 m);(different gate openings) | 1.2 m | University of Auckland, New Zealand | 2018 | Water level time series at three locations; bore velocities; pressure time series on the piles and deck | Wave gauges; pressure sensors | ✗ | |

Chen et al. [274] | Total; dry bottom; impact on a bridge model (four different contraction ratios) | Reservoir: 50 m^{3}Rectangular channel L = 14 m, W = 1.2 m, S = 0, S _{b} = 30°; smooth | h_{u} = 0.3, 0.4, 0.6 m(different gate openings) | 1.2 m | University of Auckland, New Zealand | 2018 | Force and momentum acting on the bridge; pressure time series on the bridge deck; wave height time series | Load cell; pressure transducers; capacitance wave gauges; video camera (30 fps) | ✗ | |

Ishii et al. [275] | Total; dry bottom (wet bottom in the foreshore area); sloping beach starting 4.45 m downstream of the upstream end; impact on a vertical structure | Tank L = 9 m, W = 4 m, Lr = N.A., S = 0, S _{b} ≈ 8.5°; smooth | h_{u} = N.A.(h _{d} = 0.2 m) | 4 m | Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan | 2018 | Flow vortices behind the structure | Load cell; wave gauges, PIV | ✗ | 3D RANS, VOF FV |

Lu et al. [276] | Total; dry and wet (in the foreshore area) bottom; sloping beach starting 1.8 m downstream of the gate | Rectangular channel L = 6.5 m, W = 0.4 m, Lr = 1.5 m, S = 0, S _{b} = 1/7.5; smooth | h_{u} = 0.08–0.24 m(h _{d} = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 m) | 0.4 m | Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China | 2018 | Wave front position; maximum run-up; flow images | Video camera (150 fps) | ✗ | |

Chen et al. [277] | Total; dry bottom; sloping beach starting 0.76 m downstream of the dam; run-up height of balls with different diameters and densities | Rectangular channel L = 4.4 m, W = 0.3 m, Lr = 1.29 m, S = 0; S _{b} = 15–90°; smooth | h_{u} = 0.06, 0.1, 0.14,0.18, 0.22 m | 0.3 m | University of Fuzhou, China | 2020 | Water surface profiles; ball climbing height | Video camera | ✗ | |

Chen et al. [278] | Total; dry bottom; impact on a container model | Rectangular channel L = 4.4 m, W = 0.3 m, Lr = 1.27 m, S = 0, −1°; smooth | h_{u} = 0.13, 0.14, 0.15,0.16, 0.17 m | 0.3 m | University of Fuzhou, China | 2020 | Tsunami wave height; shift of the container model; flow images | Water level gauge; video camera | ✗ | |

Elsheikh et al. [279,280] | Total; dry bottom; interaction with a transverse canal located 3 m downstream of the gate (three different depths and widths) | Rectangular channel L = 15.56 m, W = 0.38 m, Lr = 7.76 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 m | 0.38 m | University of Ottawa, Canada | 2020 | Wave front motion and wave height over the canal; wave profiles; water level hydrographs at four locations; flow velocity time series at three points | Video cameras; capacitance wave gauge and ultrasonic distance meters; ADV | ✗ | 3D RANS, VOF FV |

Barranco and Liu [281] | Total; wet bottom; sloping beach starting 11.1 m downstream of the gate | Rectangular channel L = 36 m, W = 0.9 m, Lr = 2, 4, 8, 17.6 m; S = 0; S _{b} = 1/10; smooth | h_{u} = 0.128, 0.157, 0.188, 0.221, 0.256, 0.292, 0.329, 0.368, 0.408 mh _{d} =0.1 m | 0.9 m | National University of Singapore | 2021 | Water depth time series at seven locations; run-up on the adverse slope | Capacitance gauges; ultrasonic distance meters; video camera (100fps) | ✓ | 2D SWE (non-hydrostatic) FD |

Chen and Wang [282] | Total; dry bottom; sloping beach starting 0.76 m downstream of the gate energy dissipation effect of grasses; run-up height of steel balls | Rectangular channel L = 4.4 m, W = 0.3 m, Lr = 1.29 m, S = 0, S _{b} = 30°; smooth, rough reach(artificial grasses) | h_{u} = 0.06, 0.1, 0.14,0.18, 0.22 m | 0.3 m | University of Fuzhou, China | 2022 | Wave maximum height at a location; wave celerity; ball climbing height | Water level gauges | ✗ | |

Liu et al. [283] | Total; dry bottom; sloping channel starting 0.45 m downstream of the gate; impact on a vertical wall placed 0.85 m from the gate | Tank L = 1.2 m, W = 0.44 m, Lr = 0.25 m, S = 0; S _{b} =5°, 10°, 15°; smooth | h_{u} = 0.25 m | 0.44 m | University of Ottawa, Canada | 2022 | Wave runup on the vertical wall; images of the wave propagation; free surface profiles at selected times; time history of the wave front | Ultrasonic distance meters; video camera (60 fps) | ✗ | |

Liu et al. [284] | Total; dry bottom; sloping channel starting 0.45 m downstream of the gate; impact on a vertical wall placed 0.85 m from the gate | Tank L = 1.2 m, W = 0.44 m, Lr = 0.25 m, S = 0, S _{b} = 5°, 10°, 15°; smooth | h_{u} = 0.3 m | 0.44 m | University of Ottawa, Canada | 2022 | Dynamic pressure time series at five points on the wall | Pressure transducers | ✗ | 3D RANS, VOF FV; 3D NSE SPH |

Rajaie et al. [285] | Total; wet bottom; sloping channel starting 4.3 m downstream of the gate insubmersible structure | Rectangular channel L = 30 m, W = 1.5 m, Lr = 21.55 m, S = 0, S _{b} = 5%; smooth, rough reach(sand bed) | h_{u} = 0.25, 0.3,0.35, 0.4 m h _{d} = 0.03, 0.1 m | 1.5 m | University of Ottawa, Canada | 2022 | Water depth time series at two locations and in front of the structure; flow velocity time series at a gauge point | Capacitance wave gauges and ultrasonic distance meters; ADV | ✗ | |

von Häfen et al. [286] | Total; dry bottom; sloping beach starting 10 m downstream of the (swing) gate composite bathymetry (horizontal inland) | Rectangular channel L = 100 m, W = 2 m, Lr = 80 m, S = 0, S _{b} =5%, followed by a horizontal bottom; smooth | h_{u} = 0.4, 0.5, 0.6 m | 2 m | Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany | 2022 | Water depth time series at four locations | Capacitance wave gauges | ✗ | 3D RANS, LSM FD; 2D SWE (non-hydrostatic) FD (ε = 0.001 m) |

^{1}L = facility length; W = facility width; Lr = reservoir length; Wr = reservoir width (if different from W); S = bottom slope; S

_{b}= beach (adverse) slope; l = obstacle characteristic length;

^{2}h

_{u}= upstream water depth; h

_{d}= downstream water depth;

^{3}ADV = acoustic Doppler velocimeter; PIV = particle image velocimetry;

^{4}✗ = not freely available; ✓ = freely available;

^{5}Approach: 1D = one-dimensional; 2D = two-dimensional; 3D = three-dimensional–Mathematical model: LSM = level set method; NSE = Navier–Stokes equations; RANS = Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations; SWE = shallow water equations; VOF = volume of fluid–Numerical method: FD = finite difference; FE = finite element; FV = finite volume; SPH = smoothed-particle hydrodynamics–n = Manning roughness coefficient; ε = surface roughness; λ = friction factor; N.A. = not available.

(1) Reference | (2) Dam-Break Type | (3) Setup Characteristics ^{1} | (4) Initial Conditions ^{2} | (5) Breach Width | (6) Laboratory | (7) Year | (8) Measured Data | (9) Measuring Technique ^{3} | (10) Data ^{4} | (11) Numerical Simulation ^{5} |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Buchner [287] | Total; dry bottom; impact on a rigid panel | Tank L = 3.22 m, W = 1 m, Lr = 1.2 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.6 m | 1 m | Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands | 2002 | Water depth hydrographs at four locations; time series of impact loads on the panel in different areas | Force and pressure transducers | ✗ | |

Hernández-Fontes et al. [288,289] | Total; wet bottom; vessel structure located 0.505 m downstream of the gate | Tank L = 1 m, W = 0.355 m, Lr = 0.3 m, S = 0; smooth; f = 0.006, 0.024, 0.042 m | h_{u} = 0.18, 0.2, 0.21, 0.22, 0.24 mh _{d}/h_{u} = 0.6 | 0.355 m | Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil | 2017 | Water elevation hydrographs at two locations; video-images of green water flow | Conductive wave probes; video cameras (500 fps) | ✗ | |

Hernández-Fontes et al. [290] | Total; wet bottom; vessel structure located 1.258 m downstream of the gate | Tank L = 1.95 m, W = 0.5 m, Lr = 0.3 m, S = 0; smooth; f = 0.006–0.042 m | h_{u} = 0.18, 0.21, 0.24 mh _{d}/h_{u} = 0.6 | 0.5 m | Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil | 2019 | Freeboard exceedance time series; vertical load on the structure deck | Load cells; video cameras (500 fps); | ✓ | 1D SWE |

Hernández-Fontes et al. [291] | Total; wet bottom; vessel structure located 0.505 m downstream of the gate | Tank L = 1 m, W = 0.355 m, Lr = 0.3 m, S = 0; smooth; f = 0.03–0.042 m | h_{d} = 0.108, 0.12 mh _{d}/h_{u} = 0.8, 0.7, 0.6, 0.5, 0.4 | 0.355 m | Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil | 2020 | Water elevation hydrographs at four locations; freeboard exceedance time series; vertical load on the structure deck; video-images of green water flow | Conductive wave probes); load cells; video cameras (500 fps) | ✗ | |

Hernández-Fontes et al. [292] | Total; wet bottom; vessel structure located 1.455 m downstream of the gate | Tank L = 1.95 m, W = 0.5 m, Lr = 0.3 m, S = 0; smooth; f = 0.006–0.042 m | h_{u} = 0.18, 0.2, 0.21, 0.22, 0.24, 0.27, 0.3 mh _{d}/h_{u} = 0.6, 0.5, 0.4 | 0.5 m | Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil | 2020 | Water elevation hydrographs at five locations; freeboard exceedance time series; vertical load on the structure deck; video-images of green water flow | Conductive wave probes); load cells; video cameras (500 fps) | ✗ | |

Hernández-Fontes et al. [293] | Total; wet bottom; vessel structure located 0.505 m downstream of the gate | Tank L = 1 m, W = 0.355 m, Lr = 0.3 m, S = 0; smooth; f = 0.03 m | h_{u} = 0.3 mh _{d} = 0.12 m | 0.355 m | Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil | 2020 | Water elevation hydrographs at five locations; water surface profiles; video-images of green water flow | Conductive wave probes; video cameras (250 fps) | ✗ | |

Wang and Dong [294] | Total; wet bottom; interaction with a floating box (0.3 m × 0.595 m × 0.1 m, placed 0.75 m or 1.2 m from the gate) | Tank L = 2 m, W = 0.6 m, Lr = 0.5 m, S = 0; smooth; f = 0.07 m | h_{u} = 0.25, 0.3, 0.35 mh _{d} = 0.15 m | 0.6 m | Ocean University, Qingdao, China | 2022 | Pressure hydrographs at two points on the box upstream face; water surface hydrographs at two locations; motion of the floating structure | Pressure probes; wave gauges; motion capture system | ✗ |

^{1}L = facility length; W = facility width; Lr = reservoir length; Wr = reservoir width (if different from W); S = bottom slope; f = freeboard;

^{2}h

_{u}= upstream water depth; h

_{d}= downstream water depth;

^{3}–;

^{4}✗ = not freely available; ✓ = freely available;

^{5}Approach: 1D = one-dimensional–Mathematical model: SWE = shallow water equations; N.A. = not available.

(1) Reference | (2) Dam-Break Type | (3) Setup Characteristics ^{1} | (4) Initial Conditions ^{2} | (5) Breach Width | (6) Laboratory | (7) Year | (8) Measured Data | (9) Measuring Technique ^{3} | (10) Data ^{4} | (11) Numerical Simulation ^{5} |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Chanson et al. [295]; Chanson et al. [296] | Total; dry bottom; thixotropic fluid (bentonite suspension) | Rectangular channel L = 2 m, W = 0.34 m, Lr = h _{u}/sin(15°),S = 15°; rough | h_{u} = 0.0472–0.0784 m | 0.34 m | Laboratory of Materials and Structures in Civil Engineering, Champs sur Marne, France | 2004 | Free surface; wave front propagation; wave front profiles | Video cameras (25 fps) | ✗ | |

Jánosi et al. [64] | Total; dry and wet bottom; polyethylene-oxide; different concentrations | Tank L = 9.93 m, W = 0.15 m, Lr = 0.38 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.11–0.25 mh _{d} = 0–0.005 m | 0.15 m | Eötvös University, Budapest, Hungary | 2004 | Water profiles; front position and velocity | Video cameras | ✗ | |

Komatina and Đorđević [297] | Total; dry bottom; mixture of water and copper tailings; different volumetric concentrations of the solid phase | Rectangular channel L = 4.5 m, W = 0.15 m, Lr = 2 m, Wr = 0.155 m, S = 0–0.01; smooth | h_{u} = 0.1–0.3 m | 0.155 m | University of Belgrade, Serbia & Montenegro | 2004 | Flow depth profiles at different times | Video camera (5 fps) | ✗ | 1D SWE FD |

Cochard and Ancey [298]; Cochard [299]; Cochard and Ancey [300] | Total; dry bottom; viscoplastic fluid (Carbopol Ultrez 10) | Plane L = 6 m, W = 1.8 m, S = 0–18°; smooth Reservoir Wr = 1.8 m, Mass = 120 kg | N.A. | 1.6 m | EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland | 2006 | Free surface and flow depth profiles at different times | Video camera | ✗ | |

Balmforth et al. [301] | Total; dry bottom; Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids (corn syrup and aqueous suspensions of xanthan gum, kaolin, Carbopol, and cornstarch) | Rectangular channel L > 1 m, W = 0.1 m, Lr = 0.4 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.02–0.0435 m | 0.1 m | N.A. | 2007 | Wave front position | Video camera | ✗ | |

Ancey and Cochard [302] | Total; dry bottom; viscoplastic (Herschel–Bulkley) fluid (Carbopol Ultrez 10) | Rectangular channel L = 4 m, W = 0.3 m, Lr = 0.51 m, S = 6, 12, 18, 24°; smooth | Mass in the reservoir: 23–43 kg | 0.3 m | EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland | 2009 | Free surface and flow depth profiles at selected times; front position with time | Video camera | ✗ | |

Cochard and Ancey [303] | Partial; dry bottom; viscoplastic (Herschel–Bulkley) fluid (Carbopol Ultrez 10) | Plane L = 5.5 m, W = 1.8 m, S = 0–18°; smooth Reservoir Lr = 0.51 m, Wr = 0.3 m | h_{u} = 0.3–0.36 m | 0.3 m | EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland | 2009 | Free surface at selected times | Video camera (45 fps) | ✗ | |

Brondani Minussi and de Freitas Maciel [304] | Total; dry bottom; viscoplastic (Herschel–Bulkley) fluid (Carbopol 940, different concentrations) | Rectangular channel L = 1.91 m, W = 0.32 m, Lr = 0.5 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.07, 0.1, 0.13 m | 0.32 m | Paulista State University, Ilha Solteira, Brazil | 2012 | Free surface at selected times; wave front position | Video camera | ✗ | 2D NSE, VOF FV |

Bates and Ancey [305] | Total; dry bottom; viscoplastic (Herschel–Bulkley) fluid; contact with a stationary layer of the same fluid | Rectangular channel L = 3.5 m, W = 0.1 m, Lr = 0.3 m; S = 12°, 16°, 20°, 24°; smooth | Fluid mass: 3 kg | 0.1 m | EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland | 2017 | Wave front position; water surface profiles; velocity field | PIV; video cameras | ✓ | 1D (lubrification theory) GM |

Jing et al. [306] | Total; dry bottom; mudflow (three different grain sizes) | Rectangular channel L = 6 m, W = 0.3 m; S = 0.02; smooth Reservoir Lr = 2 m, Wr = 0.6 m | h_{u} = 0.30 m | 0.3 m | University of Mining and Technology, Beijing, China | 2019 | Flow depth, velocity and pressure hydrographs at four locations | Video cameras (300 fps); pressure sensors | ✗ | |

Modolo et al. [307] | Total; dry bottom; Bingham fluid (different solutions) | Tank L = 1.52 m, W = 0.05 m, Lr = 0.4 m, S = 0; smooth and rough | h_{u} = 0.24 m | 0.05 m | Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil | 2019 | Flow images; flow depth profiles at selected times | Video camera; PIV | ✗ | |

Tang et al. [308] | Total; dry bottom; mud flow (Herschel–Bulkley fluid) | Rectangular channel L = 3 m, W = 0.23 m, Lr = 0.48 m, S = 0, 5°, 10°; smooth | Mud volume: 38.6, 36.3, 34 l | 0.23 m | Sichuan University, Chengdu, China | 2022 | Flow depth and bottom pressure hydrographs at two locations | Pressure sensors; laser sensors | ✗ | 2D NSE, VOF FD |

^{1}L = facility length; W = facility width; Lr = reservoir length; Wr = reservoir width (if different from W); S = bottom slope;

^{2}h

_{u}= upstream water depth; h

_{d}= downstream water depth;

^{3}PIV = particle image velocimetry;

^{4}✗ = not freely available; ✓ = freely available;

^{5}Approach: 1D = one-dimensional; 2D = two-dimensional–Mathematical model: NSE = Navier–Stokes equations; SWE = shallow water equations; VOF = volume of fluid–Numerical method: FD = finite difference; FV = finite volume; GM = Galerkin method; N.A. = not available.

(1) Reference | (2) Dam-Break Type | (3) Setup Characteristics ^{1} | (4) Initial Conditions ^{2} | (5) Breach Width | (6) Laboratory | (7) Year | (8) Measured Data | (9) Measuring Technique ^{3} | (10) Data ^{4} | (11) Numerical Simulation ^{5} |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Yang et al. [309] | Two total dam-breaks; three different distances between the two dams (7.8, 9.8, 11.8 m); dry bottom | Rectangular channel L = 20 m, W = 0.5 m, S = 12°; smooth | h_{u} = 0.184–0.531 m | 0.5 m | Sichuan University, Chengdu, China | 2011 | Water depth hydrographs in 10 positions | Water probes; high resolution camera | ✗ | |

Chen et al. [310] | Total dam-break; pressure load on a downstream dam; dry bottom | Upstream reservoir Lr = 2 m, Wr = 0.4 m, S = 0 Rectangular channel L = 10 m, W = 0.4 m S = 4, 8, 12°; smooth | h_{u} = 0.1–0.3 m(upstream reservoir); h _{d} = 0–0.3 m(downstream reservoir) | 0.4 m | Sichuan University, Chengdu, China | 2014 | Pressure hydrographs 20 positions at five different elevations on the downstream dam | Pressure sensors | ✗ | |

Liu et al. [311] | Two total dam-breaks; dry bottom (dam height: 0.4 m) | Reservoirs Lr = 2 m, W = 0.8 m Rectangular channel L = 12 m, W = 0.4 m, S = 1/12.5, smooth; | h_{u}_{1} = h_{u}_{2} = 0.3 m(downstream dam breaks 0, 2, 4 s after the upstream one); h _{u}_{1} = h_{u}_{2} = 0.2 m(downstream dam breaks due to overtopping) | 0.4 m | Changjiang River Scientific Research Institute, Wuhan, China | 2017 | Water depth hydrographs at six locations | Ultrasonic distance meters | ✗ | |

Zhang and Xu [312] | Three dams; total break of the upstream dam; dry bottom; retarding effects of an intermediate intact dam (dam height: 0–0.6 m) | Upstream reservoir Lr = 2.97 m, Wr = 1.93 m Rectangular channel L = 20 m, W = 0.5 m, S = 12°, smooth; | h_{u} = 0.1–0.3 m(upstream dam); h _{u} = 0.1–0.5 m(downstream dam); h _{u} = 0–0.6 m(intermediate dam) | 0.5 m | Sichuan University, Chengdu, China | 2017 | Pressure time series on the face of the intermediate dam; flow images | Pressure sensors; video cameras | ✓ | |

Luo et al. [313] | Two dams; total break of the upstream dam; dry bottom; flow in the downstream reservoir | Rectangular channel L = 10 m, W = 0.4 m, S = 4°; smooth | h_{u} = 0.2 m(upstream dam); h _{u} = 0.15, 0.3 m(downstream dam) | 0.4 m | Sichuan University, Chengdu, China | 2019 | Flow images; water depth and pressure hydrographs at three points | N.A | ✗ | 3D NSE SPH |

Luo et al. [313] | Three dam-breaks; dry bottom | Rectangular channel L = 15.6 m, W = 0.5 m, S = 4°; smooth | h_{u} = 0.5 m(upstream dam); h _{u} = 0.5 m(downstream dams) | 0.5 m | Sichuan University, Chengdu, China | 2019 | Flow images; water depth hydrograph at six points | N.A | ✗ | 3D NSE SPH |

Kocaman and Dal [314] | Two dams; total break of the upstream dam on the reservoir of the downstream one; overtopping of the downstream dam | Rectangular channel L = 2.5 m, W = 0.25 m, Lr = 0.75 m (both dams) S = 1/5, smooth | h_{u} = 0.15 m(both dams) | 0.25 | Iskenderun Technical University, Turkey | 2020 | Water depth hydrographs; images of the free surface profiles | Video cameras (120 and 50 fps) | ✗ | 3D NSE SPH |

^{1}L = facility length; W = facility width; Lr = reservoir length; Wr = reservoir width (if different from W); S = bottom slope;

^{2}h

_{u}= upstream water depth; h

_{d}= downstream water depth;

^{3}–;

^{4}✗ = not freely available; ✓ = freely available;

^{5}Approach: 3D = three-dimensional–Mathematical model: NSE = Navier–Stokes equations–Numerical method: SPH = smoothed particle hydrodynamics; N.A. = not available.

(1) Reference | (2) Dike-Break type | (3) Setup Characteristics ^{1} | (4) Initial Conditions ^{2} | (5) Breach Width | (6) Laboratory | (7) Year | (8) Measured Data | (9) Measuring Technique ^{3} | (10) Data ^{4} | (11) Numerical Simulation ^{5} |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Bechteler et al. [315] | Sudden trapezoidal opening (1V:1.11H slope) | Rectangular channel L = 30 m, W = 2 m, S = 0 Floodplain L = 5 m, W = 10 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.2 m | 0.5 m | University of German Federal Armed Forces, Munich Germany | 1992 | Pressure hydrographs at 29 locations; flooded area perimeter | Pressure transducers; video camera | ✗ | 2D SWE FV (n = 0.001 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Liem and Köngeter [316] | N.A. | Rectangular channel L = N.A., W = N.A., S = N.A. Floodplain L = 8.5 m, W = 3.5 m, S = 0.05; smooth | N.A. | 0.6 m | Aachen University of Technology, Germany | 1999 | Water levels hydrographs in 72 points; front wave propagation | Electrode system; capacity sensors | ✗ | (n = 0.01 s m^{−1/3}) |

Aureli and Mignosa [317,318] | Sudden opening | Rectangular channel L = 10 m, W = 0.3 m, S = 0.001 Floodplain L = 1.5 m, W = 2.6 m; smooth | Steady flow 5–15 l/s | 0.28 m | University of Parma, Italy | 2002 | Water depth hydrographs at nine locations; transverse velocity profiles; discharge flowing through the breach | Ultrasonic distance meters; ADV; triangular weir | ✗ | 2D SWE FD (n = 0.01 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Sarma and Das [319] | Sudden opening | Compound channel L = 9.2 m, W = N.A., S = N.A. Floodplain L = 2 m, W = 2.5 m, S = 0; smooth | N.A. | N.A. | Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati, India | 2003 | Wave front in the flooding plane at three times | N.A. | ✗ | (n = 0.013 s m^{−1/3}) |

Briechle et al. [320]; Briechle [321]; Harms et al. [322] | Sudden opening | Rectangular channel L = N.A., W = 1 m, S = N.A. Floodplain L = 3.5 m, W = 4 m, S = N.A.; smooth | Steady flow: 300 l/s h _{u} = 0.3–0.5 m | 0.5 m | Aachen University of Technology, Germany | 2004 | Water depth hydrographs; wave front position and velocity | Ultrasonic distance meters; Video cameras (>50 fps) | ✗ | 2D SWE DG (n = 0.0083 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Oertel and Schlenkhoff [323]; Oertel [324] | N.A. | Rectangular channel W ≈ 0.6 m Floodplain L = 4 m, W = 5.6 m, S = 0; smooth | N.A. | 0.5 m | Bergische University Wuppertal, Germany | 2008 | Water depth contour maps | Ultrasonic distance meters | ✗ | |

Roger et al. [325] | Sudden opening | Rectangular channel L = N.A., W = 1 m, S = N.A. Floodplain L = 4 m, W = 3.5 m, S = 0; smooth | Steady flow: 100–300 l/s h _{u} = 0.3–0.5 m | 0.3–0.7 m | Aachen University of Technology, Germany | 2009 | Surface profiles at different times; breach discharge | Ultrasonic distance meters; LDA | ✗ | 2D SWE DG, FV (n = 0.005–0.02 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Sun et al. [326] | Sudden breaching | Rectangular channel L = 40 m, W = 1 m, Lr = 15.5 m Floodplain L = 25 m, W = 2.5 m, S = 0; smooth | Steady flow: 80 l/s | 1 m | University of Tsinghua, Beijing, China | 2017 | Water depth and flow velocity hydrographs at several locations; | Pressure gauges; ADV | ✗ | 2D SWE FD (n = 0.012 s m ^{−1/3}) |

Al-Hafidh et al. [327] | Sudden breaching | Rectangular channel L = 11 m, W = 0.4 m, S = 0 Floodplain L = 1.83 m, W = 4.87 m; smooth | Different inflow hydrographs | 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 m | University of South Carolina, USA | 2022 | Water depth hydrographs at eight locations | Ultrasonic distance meters | ✗ | |

Yoon et al. [328] | Gradual trapezoidal breaching (sliding opening) 1V:0.3H | Rectangular channel L = 30 m, W = 5 m, S = 0; Floodplain L = 25 m, W = 30 m; smooth | h_{u} = 0.3, 0.35, 0.4,0.45, 0.5, 0.55 m | 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3 m | Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology, Korea | 2022 | Water depth hydrographs; propagation of the wave front | Wave height meters | ✗ |

^{1}L = facility length; W = facility width; Lr = reservoir length; Wr = reservoir width (if different from W); S = bottom slope;

^{2}h

_{u}= water depth in the channel;

^{3}ADV = acoustic Doppler velocimeter; LDA = laser Doppler anemometer;

^{4}✗ = not freely available;

^{5}Approach: 2D = two-dimensional–Mathematical model: SWE = shallow water equations–Numerical method: DG = discontinuous Galerkin; FD = finite difference; FV = finite volume–n = Manning roughness coefficient; N.A. = not available.

(1) Reference | (2) Dam-Break Type | (3) Setup Characteristics ^{1} | (4) Initial Conditions ^{2} | (5) Bund Characteristics | (6) Laboratory | (7) Year | (8) Measured Data | (9) Measuring Technique ^{3} | (10) Data ^{4} | (11) Numerical Simulation ^{5} |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Greenspan and Johansson [329] | Total and partial (orifice over a 30° arc: 0.0254 m wide, h = 0.076 m high); dry bottom | Cylindrical tank D = 0.19 m, S = 0; smooth | 0.05 m < h_{u} <0.22 m | Circular: bund radius = 0.127, 0.178, 0.229, 0.279 m; bund inclination = 30°, 60°, 90°; bund height = 0.033, 0.038, 0.051, 0.064 m | Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA | 1981 | Overtopping fraction (as a function of the dike characteristics) | Needle depth gauge; video camera | ✗ | |

Sharifi [330] | Total; dry bottom; three configurations: unconfined flow, barrier flow, and confined flow (wall height = 0.25h _{u}) | Cylindrical tank D = 0.087 m, S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.5D,0.75D, D | Circular: bund radius = 0.175, 0.24, 0.258, 0.3, 0.34 m; bund inclination = 40°, 90° bund height = 0.022, 0.032, 0.044 0.065 m | Imperial College of Science and Technology, London, UK | 1987 | Water depth hydrographs at eight positions; wave front propagation | Light-sensitive photodiodes; video camera (128 fps) | ✗ | |

Maschek et al. [331] | Total; dry and wet bottom; symmetric and asymmetric water column (off-centeredness = 0.055, 0.0825, 0.11 m); effect of obstacles in the flow: rings, rods, and particles | Cylindrical tanks Inner D = 0.11, 0.19 m; Outer D = 0.44 m; S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.22,0.23 m h _{d} = 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05,0.1 m | Circular: bund height = 0.02, 0.03 m | Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre, Germany | 1992 | Arrival time at the wall; time of maximum height; maximum height at the container wall; time of maximum height; maximum height at pool center | Video camera | ✗ | |

Cleaver et al. [332]; Cronin and Evans [333] | Total; dry bottom; different bunding arrangements; impact on an additional cylindrical tank (D = 3.5 m) | Quarter of cylinder tank D = 3.5 m; S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 1.45, 1.6, 1.75 m | Circular: bund radius = 5, 7.1, 10 m; bund inclination = 30°; 45°, 90°; bund height = 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 m; Square: bund distance = 6.27, 4.43, 8.89 m; bund inclination = 90°; bund height = 0.05, 0.2 m | Advantica Technologies Ltd. (for Health and Safety Executive), Loughborough, UK | 2001 | Time of water arrival at 60 positions; water head in the tank; overtopping volume | Video camera (125 fps); pressure transducer; depth resistance probes; calibrated container | ✗ | |

Atherton [334] | Total; dry bottom; different bunding arrangements | Quarter of cylinder tank, D = 0.6 m; S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.12, 0.3, 0.6 m | Circular: bund radius = 0.315–1.9 m; bund inclination = 90°; bund height = 0.006–0.72 m; Triangular and Rectangular: bund distance = 0.441, 1.247 m; bund inclination = 90°; bund height = 0.012, 0.12 m | Liverpool John Moores University, UK | 2005 | Dynamic pressure vertical profiles on the bund; wave heights; fluid mass overtopping the bund | Piezotronic pressure transducers; resistive wave gauges; water balance; video camera | ✗ | |

Atherton [335] | Partial; (orifice: 0.019–0.084 m diameter; slot: 0.157 m wide, 0.007–0.18 m high) | Quarter of cylinder tank, D = 0.6 m; S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.12, 0.3, 0.6 m | Circular: bund radius = 0.497–1.407 m; bund inclination = 90°; bund height = 0.006–0.24 m | Liverpool John Moores University, UK | 2008 | Dynamic pressure vertical profiles on the bund; wave heights; fluid mass overtopping the bund | Piezotronic pressure transducers; resistive wave gauges; water balance; video camera | ✗ | |

Zhang et al. [336] | Total; dry bottom; straight and curved dikes | Cylindrical tank D = 0.1, 0.2 m; S = 0; smooth | h_{u} > 0.3 m (for D = 0.1 m);h _{u} > 0.2 m (for D = 0.2 m) | Circular: bund radius = 0.1–0.15 m; bund inclination = 90°; bund height = 0.022-0.051 m; Square: bund distance (equivalent radius) = 0.11–0.23 m; bund inclination = 90°; bund height = 0.022–0.045 m | Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center, Texas A&M University, USA | 2017 | Fluid mass overtopping the bund | Balance; video camera | ✗ | |

Zhang et al. [336] | Total; dry bottom; straight and curved dikes | Cylindrical tank D = 0.229 m; S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.5 m | Square: bund distance (equivalent radius) = 0.516 m; bund inclination = 90°; bund height = 0.08–0.098 m | Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center, Texas A&M University, USA | 2017 | Fluid mass overtopping the bund | Balance; video camera | ✗ | |

Megdiche [337] | Total and partial (slot: 0.157 m wide, 0.018–0.09 m high); dry bottom; different bunding arrangements; viscous fluid (olive oil) | Quarter of cylinder tank, D = 0.6 m; S = 0; smooth | h_{u} = 0.12, 0.3, 0.6 m | Circular: bund radius = 0.497–1.9 m; bund inclination = 90°; bund height = 0.03–0.72 m; Triangular, square, and rectangular: bund distance = 0.324–1.095 m; bund inclination = 90°; bund height = 0.012, 0.12 m | Liverpool John Moores University, UK | 2018 | Dynamic pressure vertical profiles on the bunds; wave heights; fluid mass overtopping the bund | Piezotronic pressure transducers; resistive wave gauges; water balance, video camera | ✗ | 3D RANS, VOF FV |

Zhao et al. [338] | Total; dry bottom; bunds with different shapes, inclinations and breakwaters | Cylindrical tank D = 0.27 m; S = 0; smooth | Various tank filling ratios | Circular: bund radius = 0.272 m; bund inclination = 45°, 60°, 90°, 120°; bund height = 0.1 m; Square: (0.483 m × 0.483 m) and rectangular (0.341 m × 0.683 m): bund inclination = 45°, 60°, 90°, 120°; bund height = 0.1 m | Nanjing Tech University, China | 2022 | Dynamic pressure time series at selected points on the bunds overtopping fraction | Pressure sensors; balance; video camera | ✗ | 3D RANS, VOF FV |

^{1}D = diameter of the cylindrical tank; S = bottom slope;

^{2}h

_{u}= upstream water depth; h

_{d}= downstream water depth;

^{3}–;

^{4}✗ = not freely available;

^{5}Approach: 3D = three-dimensional–Mathematical model: RANS = Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations; VOF = volume of fluid–Numerical method: FV = finite volume; N.A. = not available.

## 3. Discussion and Advances

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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