# Impact of the Boreholes on the Surrounding Ground

^{1}

^{2}

^{3}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Analysis

#### 2.1. Model and Method

#### 2.2. Parameters

## 3. Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. Influence of Boreholes on Surrounding Ground under Unloaded Condition

#### 3.1.1. In Case of Single Boreholes Left Vacant

#### 3.1.2. In Case of Double Boreholes Left Vacant

#### 3.1.3. Comparison of Cases of Vacant and Filled Double Boreholes

^{2}, and it was same for medium and soft ground, with a recovery value of 0.04 kN/m

^{2}.

#### 3.2. Influence of Loading on Ground Surrounding Boreholes

^{2}magnitude. The load was set by considering that the load value would not become too large and affect the accuracy of the analysis results.

#### 3.2.1. In Case of Single Boreholes Left Vacant

#### 3.2.2. In Case of Two Boreholes Left Vacant and Loading at Different Position

^{2}spanning over 3 × 3 m. Next, the ground model contained only two boreholes; considering that the model is 50 × 50 m, the number of boreholes was too low to impart the maximum impact. For stiff ground, the maximum displacement vector value increased by approximately 2 mm in the case of loading at either position. For soft ground, the changes were negligible in both cases. Meanwhile, for medium ground, the value decreased by approximately 3 mm in the case of loading at position 1, but it remained unchanged in the case of loading at position 2. Although the overall influence of loading at either position remained negligible, the displacement of the ground between the load and the borehole increased, and the range of influence shifted toward the direction of the loading.

## 4. Conclusions

- (1)
- The amount of ground displacement was seen to depend upon the stiffness of the ground. The maximum initial displacement was observed for stiff ground in all cases, except the case of double boreholes, in which the final stabilized displacement value was slightly higher or equal to that of the stiff ground.
- (2)
- Soft ground was found to be relatively more unstable than stiff and medium grounds, as the location of the maximum deformation of this ground was different than that of the other grounds.
- (3)
- The increase in the amount of displacement was observed to be larger for the case of an increased number of boreholes than that due to the loading.
- (4)
- The surrounding ground remained settled if the boreholes were left vacant, but this settlement was prevented if the holes were immediately filled with appropriate filling material. Moreover, the pore water pressure recovery was higher for the filled condition.
- (5)
- The presence of external loading not only contributed to an increase in the amount of displacement, but it also affected the location of the maximum displacement. It was observed that the inclination tended to occur in the direction of loading, indicating susceptibility to external loading.
- (6)
- The influence on the horizontal range and maximum displacement vector of the surrounding ground was lower in location 2. In other words, borehole-related work conducted with machinery located in the existing pile alignment resulted in less influence on the ground.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 8.**Comparison of frontal cross sectional total stress contour for vacant and filled cases of double boreholes.

**Figure 13.**Rates of change in maximum displacement vectors for single boreholes under the loading condition.

**Figure 15.**Rates of change in maximum displacement vectors for double boreholes under the loading condition.

w_{n} | N-Value | γ_{unsat} (kN/m^{3}) | γ_{sat} (kN/m^{3}) | ν | λ | κ | M | K_{0} | OCR | e_{0} | k_{p} (m/d) | Ground Classification |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

30% | 8.88 | 16 | 17 | 0.277 | 0.107 | 0.012 | 1.555 | 0.383 | 1 | 0.817 | 2.23 × 10^{−2} | Stiff |

40% | 6.99 | 15 | 16 | 0.276 | 0.164 | 0.018 | 1.562 | 0.380 | 1 | 1.089 | 4.34 × 10^{−3} | Medium |

80% | 2.68 | 13 | 14 | 0.274 | 0.389 | 0.04 | 1.569 | 0.378 | 1 | 2.177 | 8.47 × 10^{5} | Soft |

Material | γ_{unsat}(kN/m ^{3}) | γ_{sat}(kN/m ^{3}) | q_{u}(kN/m ^{3}) | E (kN/m ^{3}) | ν (-) | Φ (°) | C (kN/m ^{2}) | k_{p}(m/d) | N-Value |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Filler material | 14 | 15 | 100 | 136,223 | 0.48 | 26 | 50 | 8.64 × 10^{−5} | - |

Bearing layer | 20 | 21 | - | 1.4 × 10^{5} | 0.3 | - | 0 | 0.864 | 50 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Shakya, S.; Nakao, K.; Kuwahara, S.; Inazumi, S.
Impact of the Boreholes on the Surrounding Ground. *Water* **2023**, *15*, 188.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010188

**AMA Style**

Shakya S, Nakao K, Kuwahara S, Inazumi S.
Impact of the Boreholes on the Surrounding Ground. *Water*. 2023; 15(1):188.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010188

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Shakya, Sudip, Koki Nakao, Shuichi Kuwahara, and Shinya Inazumi.
2023. "Impact of the Boreholes on the Surrounding Ground" *Water* 15, no. 1: 188.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010188