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Treatment and Recovery of High-Value Elements from Produced Water

1
School of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA
2
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA
3
Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Rupak Aryal
Water 2022, 14(6), 880; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14060880
Received: 3 November 2021 / Revised: 25 February 2022 / Accepted: 1 March 2022 / Published: 11 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impacts of Energy Production on Water Resources)
Oil and gas production wells generate large volumes of water mixed with hydrocarbons (dispersed and dissolved), salts (ions), and solids. This ‘produced water’ (PW) is a waste stream that must be disposed of appropriately. The presence of toxic hydrocarbons and ions in PW makes it unsuitable for surface discharge or disposal in groundwater resources. Thus, PW is often injected into deep geological formations as a disposal method. However, the supply of global water sources is diminishing, and the demand for water in industrial, domestic, and agricultural use in water-stressed regions makes PW a potentially attractive resource. PW also contains valuable elements like lithium and rare earth elements, which are increasing in global demand. This review article provides an overview of constituents present in PW, current technologies available to remove and recover valuable elements, and a case study highlighting the costs and economic benefits of recovering these valuable elements. PW contains a promising source of valuable elements. Developing technologies, such as ceramic membranes with selective sorption chemistry could make elemental recovery economically feasible and turn PW from a waste stream into a multi-faceted resource. View Full-Text
Keywords: produced water; oil and gas production; rare earth elements; desalination produced water; oil and gas production; rare earth elements; desalination
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MDPI and ACS Style

Miranda, M.A.; Ghosh, A.; Mahmodi, G.; Xie, S.; Shaw, M.; Kim, S.; Krzmarzick, M.J.; Lampert, D.J.; Aichele, C.P. Treatment and Recovery of High-Value Elements from Produced Water. Water 2022, 14, 880. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14060880

AMA Style

Miranda MA, Ghosh A, Mahmodi G, Xie S, Shaw M, Kim S, Krzmarzick MJ, Lampert DJ, Aichele CP. Treatment and Recovery of High-Value Elements from Produced Water. Water. 2022; 14(6):880. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14060880

Chicago/Turabian Style

Miranda, Michael A., Anirban Ghosh, Ghader Mahmodi, Songpei Xie, Madelyn Shaw, Seokjhin Kim, Mark J. Krzmarzick, David J. Lampert, and Clint P. Aichele. 2022. "Treatment and Recovery of High-Value Elements from Produced Water" Water 14, no. 6: 880. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14060880

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