Flash floods are devastating natural disasters worldwide. Understanding their spatiotemporal distributions and driving factors is essential for identifying high risk areas and predicting hydrological conditions. In this study, several methods were used to analyze the changing patterns and driving factors of flash floods in the Altay region. Results indicate that the number of flash floods each year increased in 1980–2015, with two sudden change points (1996 and 2008), and April, June, and July presented the highest frequency of events. Habahe and Jeminay were known to have high flash flood incidences; however, currently, Altay City, Fuhai, Fuyun, and Qinghe are most affected. In terms of driving force analysis, precipitation and altitude performance have a key impact on flash flood occurrence in this settlement compared to other subregions, with a high percentage increase in the mean squared error value of 39, 37, 37, 37, and 33 for 10 min precipitation in a 20-year return period, elevation, 60 min precipitation in a 20-year return period, 6 h precipitation in a 20-year return period, and 24 h precipitation in a 20-year return period, respectively. The study results provide insights into spatial–temporal dynamics of flash floods and a scientific basis for policymakers to set improvement targets in specific areas.
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