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Open AccessArticle

Using Long Term Simulations to Understand Heat Transfer Processes during Steady Flow Conditions in Combined Sewers

1
School of Computing, Engineering and Digital Technology, Teesside University, Middlesbrough TS1 3BX, UK
2
Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Universirty of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD, UK
3
Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Universirty of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Constantinos V. Chrysikopoulos
Water 2021, 13(4), 570; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040570
Received: 30 December 2020 / Revised: 17 February 2021 / Accepted: 17 February 2021 / Published: 23 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial and Urban Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
This paper describes a new heat transfer parameterisation between wastewater and in-sewer air based on understanding the physical phenomena observed in free surface wastewater and in-sewer air. Long-term wastewater and in-sewer air temperature data were collected and studied to indicate the importance of considering the heat exchange with in-sewer air and the relevant seasonal changes. The new parameterisation was based on the physical flow condition variations. Accurate modelling of wastewater temperature in linked combined sewers is needed to assess the feasibility of in-sewer heat recovery. Historically, the heat transfer coefficient between wastewater and in-sewer air has been estimated using simple empirical relationships. The newly developed parameterisation was implemented and validated using independent long-term flow and temperature datasets. Predictive accuracy of wastewater temperatures was investigated using a Taylor diagram, where absolute errors and correlations between modelled and observed values were plotted for different site sizes and seasons. The newly developed coefficient improved wastewater temperature modelling accuracy, compared with the older empirical approaches, which resulted in predicting more potential for heat recovery from large sewer networks. For individual locations, the RMSE between observed and predicted temperatures ranged between 0.15 and 0.5 °C with an overall average of 0.27 °C. Previous studies showed higher RMSE ranges, e.g., between 0.12 and 7.8 °C, with overall averages of 0.35, 0.42 and 2 °C. The new coefficient has also provided stable values at various seasons and minimised the number of required model inputs. View Full-Text
Keywords: modelling; wastewater temperature; heat transfer between wastewater and in-sewer air; wastewater heat recovery modelling; wastewater temperature; heat transfer between wastewater and in-sewer air; wastewater heat recovery
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abdel-Aal, M.; Tait, S.; Mohamed, M.; Schellart, A. Using Long Term Simulations to Understand Heat Transfer Processes during Steady Flow Conditions in Combined Sewers. Water 2021, 13, 570. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040570

AMA Style

Abdel-Aal M, Tait S, Mohamed M, Schellart A. Using Long Term Simulations to Understand Heat Transfer Processes during Steady Flow Conditions in Combined Sewers. Water. 2021; 13(4):570. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040570

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abdel-Aal, Mohamad; Tait, Simon; Mohamed, Mostafa; Schellart, Alma. 2021. "Using Long Term Simulations to Understand Heat Transfer Processes during Steady Flow Conditions in Combined Sewers" Water 13, no. 4: 570. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040570

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