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Flood Hazard Mapping of Rivers in Snow- and Glacier-Fed Basins of Different Hydrological Regimes Using a Hydrodynamic Model under RCP Scenarios

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Department of Environmental Sciences, Abbottabad Campus, COMSATS University Islamabad (CUI), Abbottabad 22060, Pakistan
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Department of Agricultural Engineering, Muhammad Nawaz Shareef University of Agriculture, Multan 66000, Pakistan
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Department of Agricultural Engineering, Khwaja Fareed University of Engineering and Technology (KFUEIT), Rahim Yar Khan 64200, Pakistan
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Institute of International Rivers and Eco-Security, Yunnan University, Kunming 650500, China
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International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), Kathmandu 44700, Nepal
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Giorgio Boni and Silvia De Angeli
Water 2021, 13(20), 2806; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202806
Received: 7 August 2021 / Revised: 16 September 2021 / Accepted: 7 October 2021 / Published: 9 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing for Flood Monitoring and Risk Assessment)
The global warming trends have accelerated snow and glacier melt in mountainous river basins, which has increased the probability of glacial outburst flooding. Recurrent flood events are a challenge for the developing economy of Pakistan in terms of damage to infrastructure and loss of lives. Flood hazard maps can be used for future flood damage assessment, preparedness, and mitigation. The current study focused on the assessment and mapping of flood-prone areas in small settlements of the major snow- and glacier-fed river basins situated in Hindukush–Karakoram–Himalaya (HKH) under future climate scenarios. The Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) model was used for flood simulation and mapping. The ALOS 12.5 m Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was used to extract river geometry, and the flows generated in these river basins using RCP scenarios were used as the inflow boundary condition. Severe flooding would inundate an area of ~66%, ~86%, ~37% (under mid-21st century), and an area of ~72%, ~93%, ~59% (under late 21st century RCP 8.5 scenario) in the Chitral, Hunza, and Astore river basins, respectively. There is an urgent need to develop a robust flood mitigation plan for the frequent floods occurring in northern Pakistan. View Full-Text
Keywords: HEC-RAS; flood mapping; flood modelling; RCP scenarios; remote sensing HEC-RAS; flood mapping; flood modelling; RCP scenarios; remote sensing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hayat, H.; Saifullah, M.; Ashraf, M.; Liu, S.; Muhammad, S.; Khan, R.; Tahir, A.A. Flood Hazard Mapping of Rivers in Snow- and Glacier-Fed Basins of Different Hydrological Regimes Using a Hydrodynamic Model under RCP Scenarios. Water 2021, 13, 2806. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202806

AMA Style

Hayat H, Saifullah M, Ashraf M, Liu S, Muhammad S, Khan R, Tahir AA. Flood Hazard Mapping of Rivers in Snow- and Glacier-Fed Basins of Different Hydrological Regimes Using a Hydrodynamic Model under RCP Scenarios. Water. 2021; 13(20):2806. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202806

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hayat, Huma, Muhammad Saifullah, Muhammad Ashraf, Shiyin Liu, Sher Muhammad, Romana Khan, and Adnan A. Tahir. 2021. "Flood Hazard Mapping of Rivers in Snow- and Glacier-Fed Basins of Different Hydrological Regimes Using a Hydrodynamic Model under RCP Scenarios" Water 13, no. 20: 2806. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202806

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