Management of nitrogen and water plays a significant role in increasing crop productivity. A large amount of nitrogen (N) may be lost through leaching if these resources are not well managed. Wetting front detectors (WFDs) and Chameleon soil water sensors were used to adapt water and nitrogen applications with the goal of increasing millet yields, as well as nitrogen and water use efficiency. The trials were laid out as a randomized complete block design with factorial combinations of water and N, and included the following treatments: irrigation to field capacity (fortnightly and weekly), adaptive-water application based on sensor response or rainfed, and N treatments included either fixed nitrogen levels (0, 45, 90 kg N ha−1
) or an adaptive-N rate, depending on N content of the soil solution extracted from WFDs. Adaptive management aims to steer water and nitrogen applications towards optimum crop requirements. Treatments that received both high water and nitrogen outperformed other treatments by 11% to 68% in terms of biomass production and 16% to 54% in grain yield, while water use efficiency and irrigation use efficiency values were also higher, ranging from 1.58 to 7.94 kg m−3
and 1.43 to 8.30 kg m−3
. Results suggest that integrated adaptive water and nitrogen management should be considered to reduce high N losses and cost of crop production, without a meaningful yield penalty, relative to high production input management.
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