Next Article in Journal
A Longitudinal Microcosm Study on the Effects of Ageing on Potential Green Roof Hydrological Performance
Previous Article in Journal
EmiStatR: A Simplified and Scalable Urban Water Quality Model for Simulation of Combined Sewer Overflows
Previous Article in Special Issue
Hydrological Behavior of Peat- and Coir-Based Substrates and Their Effect on Begonia Growth
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2018, 10(6), 783;

An Assessment of the Vertical Movement of Water in a Flooded Paddy Rice Field Experiment Using Hydrus-1D

The Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, UPM Serdang 43400, Selangor DE, Malaysia
National Hydraulic Research Institute of Malaysia, Seri Kembangan, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Selangor 43300, Malaysia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 April 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil-Plant-Water Relationships)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3362 KB, uploaded 21 June 2018]   |  


A quantitative estimation of the major components of the field water balance provides management decisions on how the scheme ought to be operated to ensure better distribution of irrigation water and increased delivery performance. Therefore, in this study, the water balance component in transplanted and broadcasted rice fields with conventional irrigation (flooding irrigation) in the Tanjung Karang Rice Irrigation Scheme (TAKRIS), Sawah Sempadan were observed and then modeled using Hydrus-1D numerical model during two consecutive rice growing seasons. During the off-season, irrigation water accounted for 59.6% of the total water input (irrigation + rainfall), but about 76.2% of total water input during the main season. During the main season, rainfall water only contributed to 23.8% of total water input and 40.4% during the off-season. Drainage water accounted for 37.3% of the total water input during the off-season and 43.7% during the main season, respectively, which was the main path of water losses from conventional rice fields, which indicates that maintaining a high water level and huge rainfall events during both seasons increased drainage water. Simulated ET during the off-season and the main season accounted for 38.1% and 49.5% of the total water input, respectively. Observed and simulated water percolation revealed about 17.1% to 19.2% of total water input during both seasons, respectively. Additionally, the water productivities analyzed from total water input and irrigation water were 0.43 and 0.72 kg m−3 during the off-season and 0.60 and 0.78 kg m−3 during the main season, respectively. The water productivity index evaluated from observed and modeled evapotranspiration was 1.03 and 1.13 kg m−3 during the off-season and 0.98 and 0.94 kg m−3 during the main season, respectively. The overall results revealed that Hydrus-1D simulations were a reasonable and effective tool for simulating vertical water flow in both broadcasted and transplanted rice experimental fields. View Full-Text
Keywords: water flow; water losses; water balance; Hydrus-1D; water productivity water flow; water losses; water balance; Hydrus-1D; water productivity

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Mo’allim, A.A.; Kamal, M.R.; Muhammed, H.H.; Yahaya, N.K.E.M.; Zawawe, M.A.M.; Man, H.C.; Wayayok, A. An Assessment of the Vertical Movement of Water in a Flooded Paddy Rice Field Experiment Using Hydrus-1D. Water 2018, 10, 783.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top