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Article

Characterization of Positive Cloud to Ground Flashes Observed in Indonesia

1
Department of Electrical Engineering, Andalas University, Padang 25163, Indonesia
2
Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Vernon Cooray and Farhad Rachidi
Atmosphere 2017, 8(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos8010004
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 23 December 2016 / Accepted: 31 December 2016 / Published: 5 January 2017
The characteristics of 77 electric field changes of positive cloud to ground (CG) flashes in the tropics of Indonesia were investigated. It was found that the arithmetic mean (AM) and geometric mean (GM) values for 0%–100% and 10%–90% rise time were 12.7 μs, 11.9 μs and 6.1 μs, 5.8 μs, respectively. The percentages of single, double, and triple strokes of lightning flashes were 83% (64 cases), 16% (12 cases), and 1% (1 case), respectively. The AM and GM of the interstroke intervals and the return stroke (RS) amplitude ratios were 163.9 ms, 0.29, and 13.3 ms, 0.26, respectively. Furthermore, it was also found that 7 (9%) of 77 positive CG flashes had double peak return stroke waveforms with AM and GM values for 0%–100% and 10%–90% rise time of subsequent return strokes that were 6.7 μs, 6.4 μs and 4.1 μs, 4 μs, respectively. We inferred that these double peaks are produced by two ground terminations with a time interval varying from 7 to 560 μs. View Full-Text
Keywords: positive lightning; return stroke; interstroke interval; multiple ground termination positive lightning; return stroke; interstroke interval; multiple ground termination
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hazmi, A.; Emeraldi, P.; Hamid, M.I.; Takagi, N.; Wang, D. Characterization of Positive Cloud to Ground Flashes Observed in Indonesia. Atmosphere 2017, 8, 4. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos8010004

AMA Style

Hazmi A, Emeraldi P, Hamid MI, Takagi N, Wang D. Characterization of Positive Cloud to Ground Flashes Observed in Indonesia. Atmosphere. 2017; 8(1):4. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos8010004

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hazmi, Ariadi, Primas Emeraldi, Muhammad I. Hamid, Nobuyuki Takagi, and Daohong Wang. 2017. "Characterization of Positive Cloud to Ground Flashes Observed in Indonesia" Atmosphere 8, no. 1: 4. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos8010004

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