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Open AccessArticle

Temporal and Spatial Variation of PM2.5 in Xining, Northeast of the Qinghai–Xizang (Tibet) Plateau

by 1,2,3, 2, 1,3,*, 2, 2 and 1,2,3,4,*
1
State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Processes, East China University of Science and Technology (ECUST), Shanghai 200237, China
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, Qinghai University, Xining 810016, China
3
Shanghai Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Standard and Risk Management of Chemical Pollutants, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China
4
Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Shanghai 200092, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(9), 953; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11090953
Received: 20 July 2020 / Revised: 30 August 2020 / Accepted: 5 September 2020 / Published: 7 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality Assessment and Management)
PM2.5 was sampled from January 2017 to May 2018 at an urban, suburban, industrial, and rural sites in Xining. The annual mean of PM2.5 was highest at the urban site and lowest at the rural site, with an average of 51.5 ± 48.9 and 26.4 ± 17.8 μg·m−3, respectively. The average PM2.5 concentration of the industrial and suburban sites was 42.8 ± 27.4 and 37.2 ± 23.7 μg·m−3, respectively. All sites except for the rural had concentrations above the ambient air quality standards of China (GB3095-2012). The highest concentration of PM2.5 at all sites was observed in winter, followed by spring, autumn, and summer. The concentration of major constituents showed statistically significant seasonal and spatial variation. The highest concentrations of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) were found at the urban site in winter. The average concentration of F was higher than that in many studies, especially at the industrial site where the annual average concentration of F was 1.5 ± 1.7 μg·m−3. The range of sulfur oxidation ratio (SOR) was 0.1–0.18 and nitrogen oxidation ratio (NOR) was 0.02–0.1 in Xining. The higher SO42−/NO3 indicates that coal combustion has greater impact than vehicle emissions. The results of the potential source contribution function (PSCF) suggest that air mass from middle- and large-scale transport from the western areas of Xining have contributed to the higher level of PM2.5. On the basis of the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model, it was found that aerosols from salt lakes and dust were the main sources of PM2.5 in Xining, accounting for 26.3% of aerosol total mass. During the sandstorms, the concentration of PM2.5 increased sharply, and the concentrations of Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were 1.13–2.70, 1.68–4.41, and 1.15–5.12 times higher, respectively, than annual average concentration, implying that aerosols were mainly from dust and the largest saltwater lake, Qinghai Lake, and many other salt lakes in the province of Qinghai. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was utilized to study the surface components of PM2.5 and F was found to be increasingly distributed from the surface to inside the particles. We determined that the extremely high PM2.5 concentration appears to be due to an episode of heavy pollution resulting from the combination of sandstorms and the burning of fireworks. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbonaceous components; WSIIs; source apportionment; ToF-SIMS; Xining carbonaceous components; WSIIs; source apportionment; ToF-SIMS; Xining
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hu, X.; Yin, Y.; Duan, L.; Wang, H.; Song, W.; Xiu, G. Temporal and Spatial Variation of PM2.5 in Xining, Northeast of the Qinghai–Xizang (Tibet) Plateau. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 953. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11090953

AMA Style

Hu X, Yin Y, Duan L, Wang H, Song W, Xiu G. Temporal and Spatial Variation of PM2.5 in Xining, Northeast of the Qinghai–Xizang (Tibet) Plateau. Atmosphere. 2020; 11(9):953. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11090953

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hu, Xiaofeng; Yin, Yongzheng; Duan, Lian; Wang, Hong; Song, Weijun; Xiu, Guangli. 2020. "Temporal and Spatial Variation of PM2.5 in Xining, Northeast of the Qinghai–Xizang (Tibet) Plateau" Atmosphere 11, no. 9: 953. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11090953

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