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Indoor Air Quality and Health in Newly Constructed Apartments in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Surabaya, Indonesia

1
Institute of Building Design and Management, Leipzig University, Grimmaische Str. 12, 04109 Leipzig, Germany
2
Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Hiroshima University, 1-5-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8529, Japan
3
Research Institute for Human Settlement and Housing, Ministry of Public Works and Housing, Bandung 40393, Indonesia
4
Department of Architectural Education, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia (UPI), Jl. Dr. Setiabudhi No. 229 Bandung, West Java 40154, Indonesia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(4), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10040182
Received: 12 March 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 2 April 2019 / Published: 4 April 2019
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Abstract

In times of rapid urbanization, increasing usage of chemicals in buildings, and energy saving measures, the topic of indoor air quality (IAQ) demands reinforced attention. Nevertheless, especially in developing countries with urgent building construction needs, IAQ has hardly been examined. This study investigates the condition of IAQ and health of occupants in newly constructed high-rise apartments in contrast to traditional detached houses (Kampongs) in Surabaya, Indonesia. Information on building attributes, cleaning and ventilation behavior, interior sources, personal characteristics and health, especially multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), was collected through 471 questionnaires. In addition, 76 measurements of TVOCs, formaldehyde and 30 measurements of mold risk were carried out. The results showed that the share of people in apartments with a very suggestive risk of MCS was twice as high as that in Kampongs (17.6% vs. 6.7%). Correlation analysis suggested that for both residential types, health problems, negative smell or perception of IAQ, and higher levels of stress determined higher degrees of MCS. For IAQ, high concentrations of formaldehyde and TVOCs were measured in apartments and corresponded to higher MCS risk, whereas severe mold issues were predicted in Kampongs. This study suggests major shortcomings in the indoor environment in newly constructed apartments for the physical and the mental health of occupants. View Full-Text
Keywords: indoor air quality; multiple chemical sensitivity; QEESI; high-rise apartment; residence; developing countries indoor air quality; multiple chemical sensitivity; QEESI; high-rise apartment; residence; developing countries
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Hildebrandt, S.; Kubota, T.; Sani, H.A.; Surahman, U. Indoor Air Quality and Health in Newly Constructed Apartments in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Surabaya, Indonesia. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 182.

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