Next Article in Journal
Epidemiology of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Bangladesh: Prevalence among General Population, Risk Groups and Genotype Distribution
Next Article in Special Issue
Generation of A Mucor circinelloides Reporter Strain—A Promising New Tool to Study Antifungal Drug Efficacy and Mucormycosis
Previous Article in Journal
Genome Instability Induced by Low Levels of Replicative DNA Polymerases in Yeast
Previous Article in Special Issue
Role of Homologous Recombination Genes in Repair of Alkylation Base Damage by Candida albicans
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Genes 2018, 9(11), 540; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9110540

Transcriptomic and Genomic Approaches for Unravelling Candida albicans Biofilm Formation and Drug Resistance—An Update

1
School of Biosciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Taylor’s University Malaysia, Subang Jaya, 47500 Selangor, Malaysia
2
Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
3
School of Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Taylor’s University Malaysia, Subang Jaya, 47500 Selangor, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 September 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 30 October 2018 / Published: 7 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Pathogenesis in Humans: The Growing Threat)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1265 KB, uploaded 20 November 2018]   |  

Abstract

Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen, which causes a plethora of superficial, as well as invasive, infections in humans. The ability of this fungus in switching from commensalism to active infection is attributed to its many virulence traits. Biofilm formation is a key process, which allows the fungus to adhere to and proliferate on medically implanted devices as well as host tissue and cause serious life-threatening infections. Biofilms are complex communities of filamentous and yeast cells surrounded by an extracellular matrix that confers an enhanced degree of resistance to antifungal drugs. Moreover, the extensive plasticity of the C. albicans genome has given this versatile fungus the added advantage of microevolution and adaptation to thrive within the unique environmental niches within the host. To combat these challenges in dealing with C. albicans infections, it is imperative that we target specifically the molecular pathways involved in biofilm formation as well as drug resistance. With the advent of the -omics era and whole genome sequencing platforms, novel pathways and genes involved in the pathogenesis of the fungus have been unraveled. Researchers have used a myriad of strategies including transcriptome analysis for C. albicans cells grown in different environments, whole genome sequencing of different strains, functional genomics approaches to identify critical regulatory genes, as well as comparative genomics analysis between C. albicans and its closely related, much less virulent relative, C. dubliniensis, in the quest to increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the success of C. albicans as a major fungal pathogen. This review attempts to summarize the most recent advancements in the field of biofilm and antifungal resistance research and offers suggestions for future directions in therapeutics development. View Full-Text
Keywords: Candida albicans; biofilm; antifungal resistance; transcriptomics Candida albicans; biofilm; antifungal resistance; transcriptomics
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Chong, P.P.; Chin, V.K.; Wong, W.F.; Madhavan, P.; Yong, V.C.; Looi, C.Y. Transcriptomic and Genomic Approaches for Unravelling Candida albicans Biofilm Formation and Drug Resistance—An Update. Genes 2018, 9, 540.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Genes EISSN 2073-4425 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top