Transcriptomic and Genomic Approaches for Unravelling Candida albicans Biofilm Formation and Drug Resistance—An Update
AbstractCandida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen, which causes a plethora of superficial, as well as invasive, infections in humans. The ability of this fungus in switching from commensalism to active infection is attributed to its many virulence traits. Biofilm formation is a key process, which allows the fungus to adhere to and proliferate on medically implanted devices as well as host tissue and cause serious life-threatening infections. Biofilms are complex communities of filamentous and yeast cells surrounded by an extracellular matrix that confers an enhanced degree of resistance to antifungal drugs. Moreover, the extensive plasticity of the C. albicans genome has given this versatile fungus the added advantage of microevolution and adaptation to thrive within the unique environmental niches within the host. To combat these challenges in dealing with C. albicans infections, it is imperative that we target specifically the molecular pathways involved in biofilm formation as well as drug resistance. With the advent of the -omics era and whole genome sequencing platforms, novel pathways and genes involved in the pathogenesis of the fungus have been unraveled. Researchers have used a myriad of strategies including transcriptome analysis for C. albicans cells grown in different environments, whole genome sequencing of different strains, functional genomics approaches to identify critical regulatory genes, as well as comparative genomics analysis between C. albicans and its closely related, much less virulent relative, C. dubliniensis, in the quest to increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the success of C. albicans as a major fungal pathogen. This review attempts to summarize the most recent advancements in the field of biofilm and antifungal resistance research and offers suggestions for future directions in therapeutics development. View Full-Text
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Chong, P.P.; Chin, V.K.; Wong, W.F.; Madhavan, P.; Yong, V.C.; Looi, C.Y. Transcriptomic and Genomic Approaches for Unravelling Candida albicans Biofilm Formation and Drug Resistance—An Update. Genes 2018, 9, 540.
Chong PP, Chin VK, Wong WF, Madhavan P, Yong VC, Looi CY. Transcriptomic and Genomic Approaches for Unravelling Candida albicans Biofilm Formation and Drug Resistance—An Update. Genes. 2018; 9(11):540.Chicago/Turabian Style
Chong, Pei P.; Chin, Voon K.; Wong, Won F.; Madhavan, Priya; Yong, Voon C.; Looi, Chung Y. 2018. "Transcriptomic and Genomic Approaches for Unravelling Candida albicans Biofilm Formation and Drug Resistance—An Update." Genes 9, no. 11: 540.
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