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Open AccessReview

The Distinct Roles of CXCR3 Variants and Their Ligands in the Tumor Microenvironment

1
Immuno-Pharmacology and Interactomics, Department of Infection and Immunity, Luxembourg Institute of Health (LIH), L-1526 Luxembourg, Luxembourg
2
Faculty of Science, Technology and Communication, University of Luxembourg, L-1526 Luxembourg, Luxembourg
3
Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, GIGA-Molecular Biology of Diseases, University of Liège, CHU, B-4000 Liège, Belgium
4
Laboratory of Experimental Cancer Research, Department of Oncology, Luxembourg Institute of Health (LIH), L-1526 Luxembourg, Luxembourg
5
Laboratory of Nervous System Diseases and Therapy, GIGA-Neuroscience, University of Liège, B-4000 Liège, Belgium
6
Neurology Department, CHU, Academic Hospital, University of Liège, B-4000 Liège, Belgium
7
NorLux Neuro-Oncology Laboratory, Department of Oncology, Luxembourg Institute of Health (LIH), L-1526 Luxembourg, Luxembourg
8
Research Centre, Saint-Justine Hospital, University of Montreal, Montréal, QC H3T 1C5, Canada
9
Department of Biochemistry, University of Montreal, Montréal, QC H3T 1J4, Canada
10
Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry, Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Medicine (CIRM), University of Liège, CHU, B-4000 Liège, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Cells 2019, 8(6), 613; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8060613
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 16 June 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Microenvironment: Interaction and Metabolism)
First thought to orchestrate exclusively leukocyte trafficking, chemokines are now acknowledged for their multiple roles in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Dysregulation of their normal functions contributes to various pathologies, including inflammatory diseases and cancer. The two chemokine receptor 3 variants CXCR3-A and CXCR3-B, together with their cognate chemokines (CXCL11, CXCL10, CXCL9, CXCL4, and CXCL4L1), are involved in the control but also in the development of many tumors. CXCR3-A drives the infiltration of leukocytes to the tumor bed to modulate tumor progression (paracrine axis). Conversely, tumor-driven changes in the expression of the CXCR3 variants and their ligands promote cancer progression (autocrine axis). This review summarizes the anti- and pro-tumoral activities of the CXCR3 variants and their associated chemokines with a focus on the understanding of their distinct biological roles in the tumor microenvironment. View Full-Text
Keywords: chemokine receptor; CXCR3; CXCL11; CXCL10; CXCL9; CXCL4; tumor microenvironment; GPCR; ACKR3/CXCR7 chemokine receptor; CXCR3; CXCL11; CXCL10; CXCL9; CXCL4; tumor microenvironment; GPCR; ACKR3/CXCR7
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MDPI and ACS Style

Reynders, N.; Abboud, D.; Baragli, A.; Noman, M.Z.; Rogister, B.; Niclou, S.P.; Heveker, N.; Janji, B.; Hanson, J.; Szpakowska, M.; Chevigné, A. The Distinct Roles of CXCR3 Variants and Their Ligands in the Tumor Microenvironment. Cells 2019, 8, 613.

AMA Style

Reynders N, Abboud D, Baragli A, Noman MZ, Rogister B, Niclou SP, Heveker N, Janji B, Hanson J, Szpakowska M, Chevigné A. The Distinct Roles of CXCR3 Variants and Their Ligands in the Tumor Microenvironment. Cells. 2019; 8(6):613.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Reynders, Nathan; Abboud, Dayana; Baragli, Alessandra; Noman, Muhammad Z.; Rogister, Bernard; Niclou, Simone P.; Heveker, Nikolaus; Janji, Bassam; Hanson, Julien; Szpakowska, Martyna; Chevigné, Andy. 2019. "The Distinct Roles of CXCR3 Variants and Their Ligands in the Tumor Microenvironment" Cells 8, no. 6: 613.

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