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Article

Exercise Training Enhances Angiogenesis-Related Gene Responses in Skeletal Muscle of Patients with Chronic Heart Failure

1
Department of Physiology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece
2
Clinical Ergospirometry, Exercise & Rehabilitation Laboratory, Evaggelismos Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 10676 Athens, Greece
3
First Department of Intensive Care, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Klaus-Dieter Schlüter and Frédérique Tesson
Cells 2021, 10(8), 1915; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10081915
Received: 30 May 2021 / Revised: 12 July 2021 / Accepted: 23 July 2021 / Published: 28 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Cardiomyocytes, Myocardial Hypertrophy, and Heart Failure)
Peripheral myopathy consists of a hallmark of heart failure (HF). Exercise enhanced skeletal muscle angiogenesis, and thus, it can be further beneficial towards the HF-induced myopathy. However, there is limited evidence regarding the exercise type that elicits optimum angiogenic responses of skeletal muscle in HF patients. This study aimed to (a) compare the effects of a high-intensity-interval-training (HIIT) or combined HIIT with strength training (COM) exercise protocol on the expression of angiogenesis-related factors in skeletal muscle of HF patients, and (b) examine the potential associations between the expression of those genes and capillarization in the trained muscles. Thirteen male patients with chronic HF (age: 51 ± 13 y; BMI: 27 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to a 3-month exercise program that consisted of either HIIT (N = 6) or COM training (N = 7). Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were performed pre- and post-training. RT-PCR was used to quantify the fold changes in mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α), angiopoietin 1 (Ang-1), angiopoietin 2 (Ang-2), angiopoietin receptor (Tie2), and matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9), and immunohistochemistry to assess capillarization in skeletal muscle post-training. There was an overall increase in the expression levels of VEGF, VEGFR-2, HIF-1α, Ang2, and MMP9 post-training, while these changes were not different among groups. Changes in capillary-to-fibre ratio were found to be strongly associated with Tie2 and HIF-1α expression. This was the first study demonstrating that both HIIT and combined HIIT with strength training enhanced similarly the expression profile of angiogenic factors in skeletal muscle of HF patients, possibly driving the angiogenic program in the trained muscles, although those gene expression increases were found to be only partially related with muscle capillarization. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiac rehabilitation; heart failure; angiogenesis; skeletal muscle; capillarization cardiac rehabilitation; heart failure; angiogenesis; skeletal muscle; capillarization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tryfonos, A.; Tzanis, G.; Pitsolis, T.; Karatzanos, E.; Koutsilieris, M.; Nanas, S.; Philippou, A. Exercise Training Enhances Angiogenesis-Related Gene Responses in Skeletal Muscle of Patients with Chronic Heart Failure. Cells 2021, 10, 1915. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10081915

AMA Style

Tryfonos A, Tzanis G, Pitsolis T, Karatzanos E, Koutsilieris M, Nanas S, Philippou A. Exercise Training Enhances Angiogenesis-Related Gene Responses in Skeletal Muscle of Patients with Chronic Heart Failure. Cells. 2021; 10(8):1915. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10081915

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tryfonos, Andrea, Giorgos Tzanis, Theodore Pitsolis, Eleftherios Karatzanos, Michael Koutsilieris, Serafim Nanas, and Anastassios Philippou. 2021. "Exercise Training Enhances Angiogenesis-Related Gene Responses in Skeletal Muscle of Patients with Chronic Heart Failure" Cells 10, no. 8: 1915. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10081915

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