Next Article in Journal
Stimuli-Responsive Polymers and Colloids under Electric and Magnetic Fields
Next Article in Special Issue
Solar Paint: From Synthesis to Printing
Previous Article in Journal
Water Repellence and Oxygen and Water Vapor Barrier of PVOH-Coated Substrates before and after Surface Esterification
Previous Article in Special Issue
Fused-Thiophene Based Materials for Organic Photovoltaics and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Polymers 2014, 6(11), 2784-2802;

Morphological Control Agent in Ternary Blend Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106-17, Taiwan
Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
FrontMaterials Co. Ltd., New Taipei City 23441, Taiwan
Materials Science and Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 September 2014 / Revised: 16 October 2014 / Accepted: 23 October 2014 / Published: 3 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Solar Cells)
Full-Text   |   PDF [8354 KB, uploaded 3 November 2014]   |  


Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic (OPV) promise low cost solar energy and have caused an explosive increase in investigations during the last decade. Control over the 3D morphology of BHJ blend films in various length scales is one of the pillars accounting for the significant advance of OPV performance recently. In this contribution, we focus on the strategy of incorporating an additive into BHJ blend films as a morphological control agent, i.e., ternary blend system. This strategy has shown to be effective in tailoring the morphology of BHJ through different inter- and intra-molecular interactions. We systematically review the morphological observations and associated mechanisms with respect to various kinds of additives, i.e., polymers, small molecules and inorganic nanoparticles. We organize the effects of morphological control (compatibilization, stabilization, etc.) and provide general guidelines for rational molecular design for additives toward high efficiency and high stability organic solar cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: organic solar cell; bulk heterojunction; additive; morphology; ternary blend system organic solar cell; bulk heterojunction; additive; morphology; ternary blend system

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Liao, H.-C.; Chen, P.-H.; Chang, R.P.H.; Su, W.-F. Morphological Control Agent in Ternary Blend Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells. Polymers 2014, 6, 2784-2802.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Polymers EISSN 2073-4360 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top