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Article

Non-Isothermal Free-Surface Viscous Flow of Polymer Melts in Pipe Extrusion Using an Open-Source Interface Tracking Finite Volume Method

1
Institute for Polymers and Composites (IPC), Department of Polymer Engineering, Engineering School of the University of Minho, Campus of Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal
2
Transport Phenomena Research Center (CEFT), Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias s/n, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
3
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Ulica Ivana Lučića 5, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alexander Malkin
Polymers 2021, 13(24), 4454; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13244454
Received: 17 November 2021 / Revised: 8 December 2021 / Accepted: 11 December 2021 / Published: 19 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymer Simulation and Processing)
Polymer extrudate swelling is a rheological phenomenon that occurs after polymer melt flow emerges at the die exit of extrusion equipment due to molecular stress relaxations and flow redistributions. Specifically, with the growing demand for large scale and high productivity, polymer pipes have recently been produced by extrusion. This study reports the development of a new incompressible non-isothermal finite volume method, based on the Arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian (ALE) formulation, to compute the viscous flow of polymer melts obeying the Herschel–Bulkley constitutive equation. The Papanastasiou-regularized version of the constitutive equation is employed. The influence of the temperature on the rheological behavior of the material is controlled by the Williams–Landel–Ferry (WLF) function. The new method is validated by comparing the extrudate swell ratio obtained for Bingham and Herschel–Bulkley flows (shear-thinning and shear-thickening) with reference data found in the scientific literature. Additionally, the essential flow characteristics including yield-stress, inertia and non-isothermal effects were investigated. View Full-Text
Keywords: extrudate swell; pipe die; polymer melt; Herschel–Bulkley fluids; yield stress; finite volume method; interface tracking; free-surfaces; OpenFOAM extrudate swell; pipe die; polymer melt; Herschel–Bulkley fluids; yield stress; finite volume method; interface tracking; free-surfaces; OpenFOAM
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fernandes, C.; Fakhari, A.; Tukovic, Ž. Non-Isothermal Free-Surface Viscous Flow of Polymer Melts in Pipe Extrusion Using an Open-Source Interface Tracking Finite Volume Method. Polymers 2021, 13, 4454. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13244454

AMA Style

Fernandes C, Fakhari A, Tukovic Ž. Non-Isothermal Free-Surface Viscous Flow of Polymer Melts in Pipe Extrusion Using an Open-Source Interface Tracking Finite Volume Method. Polymers. 2021; 13(24):4454. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13244454

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fernandes, Célio, Ahmad Fakhari, and Željko Tukovic. 2021. "Non-Isothermal Free-Surface Viscous Flow of Polymer Melts in Pipe Extrusion Using an Open-Source Interface Tracking Finite Volume Method" Polymers 13, no. 24: 4454. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13244454

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