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Open AccessArticle

Eco-Friendly β-cyclodextrin and Linecaps Polymers for the Removal of Heavy Metals

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Department of Chemistry, University of Torino, via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino, Italy
2
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Yazd University, 89195741 Yazd, Iran
3
Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena, via Mattioli 4, 53100 Siena, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2019, 11(10), 1658; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11101658
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 8 October 2019 / Accepted: 10 October 2019 / Published: 11 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyclodextrin-Containing Polymers)
Environment-friendly nanosponges, having a high content of carboxyl groups, were synthesized by crosslinking β-cyclodextrin and linecaps, a highly soluble pea starch derivative, with citric acid in water. Additionally, pyromellitic nanosponges were prepared by reacting β-cyclodextrin and linecaps with pyromellitic dianhydride in dimethyl sulfoxide and used in comparison with the citric nanosponges. After ion-exchange of the carboxyl groups H+ with sodium ions, the ability of the nanosponges to sequester heavy metal cations was investigated. At a metal concentration of 500 ppm, the pyromellitate nanosponges exhibited a higher retention capacity than the citrate nanosponges. At lower metal concentrations (≤50 ppm) both the citrate and the pyromellitate nanosponges showed high retention capacities (up to 94% of the total amount of metal), while, in the presence of interfering sea water salts, the citrate nanosponges were able to selectively adsorb a significantly higher amount of heavy metals than the pyromellitate nanosponges, almost double in the case of Cu2+.
Keywords: heavy metal adsorption; nanosponge; β-cyclodextrin; linecaps; crosslinked polymers; citric acid polymers heavy metal adsorption; nanosponge; β-cyclodextrin; linecaps; crosslinked polymers; citric acid polymers
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Rubin Pedrazzo, A.; Smarra, A.; Caldera, F.; Musso, G.; Dhakar, N.K.; Cecone, C.; Hamedi, A.; Corsi, I.; Trotta, F. Eco-Friendly β-cyclodextrin and Linecaps Polymers for the Removal of Heavy Metals. Polymers 2019, 11, 1658.

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