Next Article in Journal
Advanced AlGaAs/GaAs Heterostructures Grown by MOVPE
Previous Article in Journal
Novel Cerium Bisphosphinate Coordination Polymer and Unconventional Metal–Organic Framework
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Effects of Anion Impurities on the Solubility and Nucleation of Borax Decahydrate Crystals in Carbonate-Type Brine

1,2,3, 1,2, 1,2,3, 1,2,* and 1,2
1
Key Laboratory of Comprehensive and Highly Efficient Utilization of Salt Lake Resources, Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008, China
2
Engineering and Technology Research Center of Comprehensive Utilization of Salt Lake Resources, Xining 810008, China
3
College of Chemistry, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Crystals 2019, 9(6), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9060304
Received: 13 May 2019 / Revised: 5 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Crystal Engineering)
  |  
PDF [1340 KB, uploaded 13 June 2019]
  |     |  

Abstract

Measurements of the solubility and metastable zone width (MSZW) of borax decahydrate (disodium tetraborate decahydrate) within chloride, sulfate and carbonate solutions were carried out. The MSZW was measured by the conventional polythermal method with turbidity technology. The results showed that the addition of impurities decreased solubility. The main factor reducing solubility is the common ion effect, but the salt effect is also significant in the complex system. The addition of impurities broadened the MSZW. The MSZW was wider at first, then decreased with the addition of NaCl, yet the MSZW widened with the addition of Na2SO4 within the concentration range studied. This can be explained by adsorption and diffusion. The data of solubility and MSZW were analyzed by applying the Van’t Hoff equation and the classical 3D nucleation theory approach, respectively. By calculating the corresponding parameters, the experimental phenomena are further explained from the perspective of thermodynamics and dynamics. View Full-Text
Keywords: growth from solutions; solubility; nucleation; borax growth from solutions; solubility; nucleation; borax
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, J.; Peng, J.; Wang, X.; Dong, Y.; Li, W. Effects of Anion Impurities on the Solubility and Nucleation of Borax Decahydrate Crystals in Carbonate-Type Brine. Crystals 2019, 9, 304.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Crystals EISSN 2073-4352 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top