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Open AccessArticle

Service Life Modeling of Concrete with SCMs Using Effective Diffusion Coefficient and a New Binding Model

1
Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
2
Department of Architecture, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Crystals 2020, 10(11), 967; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10110967
Received: 22 September 2020 / Revised: 23 October 2020 / Accepted: 24 October 2020 / Published: 26 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Properties and Performance of Concrete Materials and Structures)
This paper presents a new algorithm that predicts the service life of concrete contains supplementary cementitious materials, SCMs, and determines time of corrosion initiation. The algorithm drives effective diffusivity from an apparent diffusion model, using experimental binding data performed in the lab, temperature, free ion concentration, and carbonation, and generates free chloride profiles for concrete with and without SCMs by using Fick’s law in a finite element model. Adjusting diffusion coefficient at each step of the solution, by addressing the impact of different parameters, simplifies the algorithm and reduces calculation time without jeopardizing the results’ quality. Results generated by the model compare well to the performance of concrete blocks constructed in an exposure site on the east coast of Saudi Arabia. The exposure site hosted five different mixes of Portland cement and SCMs, and the concrete blocks were exposed to harsh weather over the period of two years. Linear polarization and chloride profiling assessed the performance of the mixes against corrosion activities. Lab work identified the performance of the mixes through binding capacity and chloride profiling. Statistical analysis evidenced the accuracy of the model through correlation and regression analysis. Furthermore, a new proposed binding model, produced from binding data in different studies, alters the experimental binding data in the algorithm to decouple the solution from experimental values. The algorithm proves its accuracy when compared to the experimental free chloride profile. The proposed transport model proves that using effective diffusion and binding capacity are enough to generate reliable results, and the effective diffusion can be calibrated with environmental conditions such as temperature, age, and carbonation. Finally, the algorithm presents its features in an object-oriented programming using C# and user friendly web interface. View Full-Text
Keywords: concrete service life; binding capacity; exposure site; transport model; diffusion concrete service life; binding capacity; exposure site; transport model; diffusion
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Oluwaseun Azeez, M.; Abd El Fattah, A. Service Life Modeling of Concrete with SCMs Using Effective Diffusion Coefficient and a New Binding Model. Crystals 2020, 10, 967.

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