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Open AccessArticle

Effect of Ce and Zr Addition to Ni/SiO2 Catalysts for Hydrogen Production through Ethanol Steam Reforming

Department of Chemical and Energy Technology, Rey Juan Carlos Universtity, c/Tulipán, s/n, Móstoles 28933, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Morris D. Argyle and Calvin H. Bartholomew
Catalysts 2015, 5(1), 58-76;
Received: 31 October 2014 / Revised: 10 December 2014 / Accepted: 7 January 2015 / Published: 30 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Catalyst Deactivation)
A series of Ni/Ce\(_{x}\)Zr\(_{1-x}\)O\(_{2}\)/SiO\(_{2}\) catalysts with different Zr/Ce mass ratios were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation. Ni/SiO\(_{2}\), Ni/CeO\(_{2}\) and Ni/ZrO\(_{2}\) were also prepared as reference materials to compare. Catalysts' performances were tested in ethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production and characterized by XRD, H\(_{2}\)-temperature programmed reduction (TPR), NH\(_{3}\)-temperature programmed desorption (TPD), TEM, ICP-AES and N\(_{2}\)-sorption measurements. The Ni/SiO\(_{2}\) catalyst led to a higher hydrogen selectivity than Ni/CeO\(_{2}\) and Ni/ZrO\(_{2}\), but it could not maintain complete ethanol conversion due to deactivation. The incorporation of Ce or Zr prior to Ni on the silica support resulted in catalysts with better performance for steam reforming, keeping complete ethanol conversion over time. When both Zr and Ce were incorporated into the catalyst, Ce\(_{x}\)Zr\(_{1-x}\)O\(_{2}\) solid solution was formed, as confirmed by XRD analyses. TPR results revealed stronger Ni-support interaction in the Ce\(_{x}\)Zr\(_{1-x}\)O\(_{2}\)-modified catalysts than in Ni/SiO\(_{2}\) one, which can be attributed to an increase of the dispersion of Ni species. All of the Ni/Ce\(_{x}\)Zr\(_{1-x}\)O\(_{2}\)/SiO\(_{2}\) catalysts exhibited good catalytic activity and stability after 8 h of time on stream at 600°. The best catalytic performance in terms of hydrogen selectivity was achieved when the Zr/Ce mass ratio was three. View Full-Text
Keywords: nickel catalyst; ceria; zirconia; promoter; coke; impregnation order nickel catalyst; ceria; zirconia; promoter; coke; impregnation order
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Calles, J.A.; Carrero, A.; Vizcaíno, A.J.; Lindo, M. Effect of Ce and Zr Addition to Ni/SiO2 Catalysts for Hydrogen Production through Ethanol Steam Reforming. Catalysts 2015, 5, 58-76.

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