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Article

Exosomal HMGB1 Promoted Cancer Malignancy

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Children’s Medical Center, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung City 407, Taiwan
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Department of Industrial Engineering and Enterprise Information, Tunghai University, Taichung City 407, Taiwan
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Department of Family Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung City 407, Taiwan
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Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei City 112, Taiwan
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Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung City 407, Taiwan
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Department of Surgery, Feng Yuan Hospital, Taichung City 420, Taiwan
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Division of Urology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung City 407, Taiwan
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Translational Cell Therapy Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung City 404, Taiwan
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Institute of New Drug Development, China Medical University, Taichung City 404, Taiwan
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Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung City 402, Taiwan
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Department of Medical Research, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung City 407, Taiwan
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Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, China Medical University, Taichung City 404, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kogularamanan Suntharalingam
Cancers 2021, 13(4), 877; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13040877
Received: 16 January 2021 / Revised: 12 February 2021 / Accepted: 18 February 2021 / Published: 19 February 2021
In addition to their role in hemostasis and thrombosis, platelets have been implicated in cancer malignancy and thrombocytosis in cancer patients and have been associated with an adverse prognosis. These phenomena indicate that antiplatelet drugs may be useful as an anticancer therapy. Using K562-differentiated megakaryocytes and murine platelets, conditioned medium and exosomes obtained from megakaryocytes and platelets contained high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and promoted cancer cell survival, as well as protected cancer cells from doxorubicin cytotoxicity. Data of tumor-bearing mice established by Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells and C57BL/6 mice revealed that antiplatelet drug dipyridamole and exosome release inhibitor GW4869 mitigated tumor growth and ameliorated concurrent alterations in blood circulation and tumor tissues, as well as platelet infiltration in tumor tissues. Therefore, exosomes and exosomal HMGB1 appear to have roles in platelet-driven cancer malignancy and represent targets of antiplatelet drugs in anticancer treatment.
Reciprocal crosstalk between platelets and malignancies underscores the potential of antiplatelet therapy in cancer treatment. In this study, we found that human chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cell-differentiated megakaryocytes and murine platelets produced bioactive substances and these are released into the extracellular space, partly in their exosomal form. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a type of exosomal cargo, and the antiplatelet drugs aspirin and dipyridamole interfered with its incorporation into the exosomes. Those released substances and exosomes, along with exogenous HMGB1, promoted cancer cell survival and protected cells from doxorubicin cytotoxicity. In a tumor-bearing model established using murine Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells and C57BL/6 mice, the tumor suppressive effect of dipyridamole correlated well with decreased circulating white blood cells, soluble P-selectin, TGF-β1 (Transforming Growth Factor-β1), exosomes, and exosomal HMGB1, as well as tumor platelet infiltration. Exosome release inhibitor GW4869 exhibited suppressive effects as well. The suppressive effect of dipyridamole on cancer cell survival was paralleled by a reduction of HMGB1/receptor for advanced glycation end-products axis, and proliferation- and migration-related β-catenin, Yes-associated protein 1, Runt-related transcription factor 2, and TGF- β1/Smad signals. Therefore, exosomes and exosomal HMGB1 appear to have roles in platelet-driven cancer malignancy and represent targets of antiplatelet drugs in anticancer treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: antiplatelet; exosome; HMGB1; malignancy antiplatelet; exosome; HMGB1; malignancy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, J.-D.; Wang, Y.-Y.; Lin, S.-Y.; Chang, C.-Y.; Li, J.-R.; Huang, S.-W.; Chen, W.-Y.; Liao, S.-L.; Chen, C.-J. Exosomal HMGB1 Promoted Cancer Malignancy. Cancers 2021, 13, 877. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13040877

AMA Style

Wang J-D, Wang Y-Y, Lin S-Y, Chang C-Y, Li J-R, Huang S-W, Chen W-Y, Liao S-L, Chen C-J. Exosomal HMGB1 Promoted Cancer Malignancy. Cancers. 2021; 13(4):877. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13040877

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Jiaan-Der, Ya-Yu Wang, Shih-Yi Lin, Cheng-Yi Chang, Jian-Ri Li, Shi-Wei Huang, Wen-Ying Chen, Su-Lan Liao, and Chun-Jung Chen. 2021. "Exosomal HMGB1 Promoted Cancer Malignancy" Cancers 13, no. 4: 877. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13040877

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