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Open AccessArticle

Development of an Individualized Prediction Calculator for the Benefit of Postoperative Radiotherapy in Patients with Surgically Resected De Novo Stage IV Breast Cancer

1
Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 07061, Korea
2
Department of Radiation Oncology, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon 35015, Korea
3
Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080, Korea
4
Department of Surgery, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 07061, Korea
5
Cancer Research Institute, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon 35015, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2020, 12(8), 2103; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12082103
Received: 13 July 2020 / Revised: 25 July 2020 / Accepted: 27 July 2020 / Published: 29 July 2020
Purpose: Locoregional treatment has been increasingly adopted for metastatic breast cancer at presentation. This study aims to develop an individualized calculator to predict the benefit of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) for patients with surgically resected de novo stage IV breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We searched the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database for patients diagnosed with stage IV breast cancer between 2010 and 2014. After applying exclusion criteria, a total of 4473 patients were included in the analysis. Propensity score matching was used to balance the individual characteristics of the patients. After identifying the significant prognosticators, a nomogram was developed using multivariate regression models and internally validated. A web-based calculator was then constructed using a fitted survival prediction model. Results: With a median follow-up of 34 months, the three-year overall survival (OS) rates were 54.1% in the surgery alone group and 63.5% in the surgery + PORT group (p < 0.001). The survival benefit of PORT was maintained after propensity score matching (p < 0.001). Interaction testing of the prognostic variables found significant interactions between PORT and the presence of brain metastasis (p = 0.001), and between PORT and hormonal receptor expression (p = 0.018). After reviewing the performance of various models, a log-normal distributed survival model was adopted, with a C-index of 0.695. A calibration plot verified that the predicted survival rates were strongly correlated with the actual OS rates. A web-based survival calculator was constructed to provide individualized estimates of survival according to PORT. Conclusion: PORT significantly improved OS rates, though the individual benefit was affected by a number of factors. We successfully developed a nomogram and web-based calculator that predicted the prognosis according to PORT in patients with surgically resected de novo stage IV breast cancer. These tools are expected to be useful in clinical practice and in the design of related trials. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast carcinoma; radiotherapy; nomogram; SEER breast carcinoma; radiotherapy; nomogram; SEER
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, B.H.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.I.; Chang, J.H.; Hwang, K.-T.; Kim, S.; Cho, M.-J.; Kwon, J. Development of an Individualized Prediction Calculator for the Benefit of Postoperative Radiotherapy in Patients with Surgically Resected De Novo Stage IV Breast Cancer. Cancers 2020, 12, 2103.

AMA Style

Kim BH, Kim S, Kim YI, Chang JH, Hwang K-T, Kim S, Cho M-J, Kwon J. Development of an Individualized Prediction Calculator for the Benefit of Postoperative Radiotherapy in Patients with Surgically Resected De Novo Stage IV Breast Cancer. Cancers. 2020; 12(8):2103.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Byoung H.; Kim, Suzy; Kim, Young I.; Chang, Ji H.; Hwang, Ki-Tae; Kim, Sup; Cho, Moon-June; Kwon, Jeanny. 2020. "Development of an Individualized Prediction Calculator for the Benefit of Postoperative Radiotherapy in Patients with Surgically Resected De Novo Stage IV Breast Cancer" Cancers 12, no. 8: 2103.

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