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Open AccessArticle

A Molecular Stratification of Chilean Gastric Cancer Patients with Potential Clinical Applicability

1
Department of Hematology & Oncology, School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 8330077, Chile
2
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 8331150, Chile
3
Faculty of Chemical & Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8380494, Chile
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Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago 7620001, Chile
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Faculty of Medicine and Science, Universidad San Sebastián, Santiago 7510157, Chile
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Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 8330024, Chile
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Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases (ACCDiS), Santiago 8330034, Chile
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Millennium Institute on Immunology and Immunotherapy, Santiago 8331150, Chile
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Instituto de Ciencias e Innovación en Medicina, Facultad de Medicina Clínica Alemana, Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago 7590943, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Cancers 2020, 12(7), 1863; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071863
Received: 21 May 2020 / Revised: 6 July 2020 / Accepted: 8 July 2020 / Published: 10 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention)
Gastric cancer (GC) is a complex and heterogeneous disease. In recent decades, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Asian Cancer Research Group (ACRG) defined GC molecular subtypes. Unfortunately, these systems require high-cost and complex techniques and consequently their impact in the clinic has remained limited. Additionally, most of these studies are based on European, Asian, or North American GC cohorts. Herein, we report a molecular classification of Chilean GC patients into five subtypes, based on immunohistochemical (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) methods. These were Epstein–Barr virus positive (EBV+), mismatch repair-deficient (MMR-D), epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like, and accumulated (p53+) or undetected p53 (p53−). Given its lower costs this system has the potential for clinical applicability. Our results confirm relevant molecular alterations previously reported by TCGA and ACRG. We confirm EBV+ and MMR-D patients had the best prognosis and could be candidates for immunotherapy. Conversely, EMT-like displayed the poorest prognosis; our data suggest FGFR2 or KRAS could serve as potential actionable targets for these patients. Finally, we propose a low-cost step-by-step stratification system for GC patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first Latin American report on a molecular classification for GC. Pending further validation, this stratification system could be implemented into the routine clinic View Full-Text
Keywords: gastric cancer; molecular subtypes; Epstein–Barr virus; molecular classification; targeted therapy gastric cancer; molecular subtypes; Epstein–Barr virus; molecular classification; targeted therapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pinto, M.P.; Córdova-Delgado, M.; Retamal, I.N.; Muñoz-Medel, M.; Bravo, M.L.; Durán, D.; Villanueva, F.; Sanchez, C.; Acevedo, F.; Mondaca, S.; Koch, E.; Ibañez, C.; Galindo, H.; Madrid, J.; Nervi, B.; Peña, J.; Torres, J.; Owen, G.I.; Corvalán, A.H.; Armisén, R.; Garrido, M. A Molecular Stratification of Chilean Gastric Cancer Patients with Potential Clinical Applicability. Cancers 2020, 12, 1863. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071863

AMA Style

Pinto MP, Córdova-Delgado M, Retamal IN, Muñoz-Medel M, Bravo ML, Durán D, Villanueva F, Sanchez C, Acevedo F, Mondaca S, Koch E, Ibañez C, Galindo H, Madrid J, Nervi B, Peña J, Torres J, Owen GI, Corvalán AH, Armisén R, Garrido M. A Molecular Stratification of Chilean Gastric Cancer Patients with Potential Clinical Applicability. Cancers. 2020; 12(7):1863. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071863

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pinto, Mauricio P.; Córdova-Delgado, Miguel; Retamal, Ignacio N.; Muñoz-Medel, Matías; Bravo, M. L.; Durán, Doris; Villanueva, Francisco; Sanchez, César; Acevedo, Francisco; Mondaca, Sebastián; Koch, Erica; Ibañez, Carolina; Galindo, Héctor; Madrid, Jorge; Nervi, Bruno; Peña, José; Torres, Javiera; Owen, Gareth I.; Corvalán, Alejandro H.; Armisén, Ricardo; Garrido, Marcelo. 2020. "A Molecular Stratification of Chilean Gastric Cancer Patients with Potential Clinical Applicability" Cancers 12, no. 7: 1863. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071863

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