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Clinical Scenarios Emerging from Combined Immunophenotypic, Molecular and Morphologic Analysis of Pancreatic Cancer: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly Scenario

1
Pancreatic Cancer Research Group, Institute of Pathology, University of Bern, Murtenstrasse 31, CH-3008 Bern, Switzerland
2
Department of Visceral Surgery, Insel University Hospital, University of Bern, Freiburgstrasse 18, CH-3010 Bern, Switzerland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2019, 11(7), 968; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11070968
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 8 July 2019 / Accepted: 9 July 2019 / Published: 10 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pancreatic Cancer Research)
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Abstract

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a devastating disease with increasing incidence and dismal prognosis. The composition of the immune cell infiltrates in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and the dynamic interplay between cancer- and immune cells can influence and/or be influenced by tumor-intrinsic characteristics like molecular profiles and tumor cell morphology. The combined analyses of pancreatic cancer by using morphologic, genetic, and immunologic features help us understand the significant heterogeneity of the TME and recognize the different mechanisms of immune evasion. Moreover, this information may lead to the identification of novel biomarkers for more precise patient stratification and therapy guidance. View Full-Text
Keywords: pancreatic cancer; immune phenotypes: molecular subtypes pancreatic cancer; immune phenotypes: molecular subtypes
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Karamitopoulou, E.; Gloor, B. Clinical Scenarios Emerging from Combined Immunophenotypic, Molecular and Morphologic Analysis of Pancreatic Cancer: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly Scenario. Cancers 2019, 11, 968.

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