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Dendritic Cells and Cancer: From Biology to Therapeutic Intervention
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Cancers 2019, 11(4), 537; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040537

A Characterization of Dendritic Cells and Their Role in Immunotherapy in Glioblastoma: From Preclinical Studies to Clinical Trials

Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors share equal contribution.
Received: 20 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 12 April 2019 / Published: 15 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumour Associated Dendritic Cells)
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Abstract

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and fatal primary central nervous system malignancy in adults with a median survival of less than 15 months. Surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy are the standard of care and provide modest benefits in survival, but tumor recurrence is inevitable. The poor prognosis of GBM has made the development of novel therapies targeting GBM of paramount importance. Immunotherapy via dendritic cells (DCs) has garnered attention and research as a potential strategy to boost anti-tumor immunity in recent years. As the “professional” antigen processing and presenting cells, DCs play a key role in the initiation of anti-tumor immune responses. Pre-clinical studies in GBM have shown long-term tumor survival and immunological memory in murine models with stimulation of DC activity with various antigens and costimulatory molecules. Phase I and II clinical trials of DC vaccines in GBM have demonstrated some efficacy in improving the median overall survival with minimal to no toxicity with promising initial results from the first Phase III trial. However, there remains no standardization of vaccines in terms of which antigens are used to pulse DCs ex vivo, sites of DC injection, and optimal adjuvant therapies. Future work with DC vaccines aims to elucidate the efficacy of DC-based therapy alone or in combination with other immunotherapy adjuvants in additional Phase III trials. View Full-Text
Keywords: dendritic cells; immunotherapy; checkpoint inhibition; glioblastoma; vaccine; plasmacytoid; myeloid; combination therapy; clinical trial dendritic cells; immunotherapy; checkpoint inhibition; glioblastoma; vaccine; plasmacytoid; myeloid; combination therapy; clinical trial
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Srivastava, S.; Jackson, C.; Kim, T.; Choi, J.; Lim, M. A Characterization of Dendritic Cells and Their Role in Immunotherapy in Glioblastoma: From Preclinical Studies to Clinical Trials. Cancers 2019, 11, 537.

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