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Review

The Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Microenvironment as a Potential Target for Cancer Therapy

1
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague 15006, Czech Republic
2
Institute of Anatomy, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague 12800, Czech Republic
3
Institute of Molecular Genetics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague 14220, Czech Republic
4
BIOCEV, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Vestec 25250, Czech Republic
5
Department of Dermatovenerology, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague 12808, Czech Republic
6
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, 3rd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague 10034, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2019, 11(4), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040440
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 22 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 28 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeting Head and Neck Cancer)
Similarly to other types of malignant tumours, the incidence of head and neck cancer is increasing globally. It is frequently associated with smoking and alcohol abuse, and in a broader sense also with prolonged exposure to these factors during ageing. A higher incidence of tumours observed in younger populations without a history of alcohol and tobacco abuse may be due to HPV infection. Malignant tumours form an intricate ecosystem of cancer cells, fibroblasts, blood/lymphatic capillaries and infiltrating immune cells. This dynamic system, the tumour microenvironment, has a significant impact on the biological properties of cancer cells. The microenvironment participates in the control of local aggressiveness of cancer cells, their growth, and their consequent migration to lymph nodes and distant organs during metastatic spread. In cancers originating from squamous epithelium, a similarity was demonstrated between the cancer microenvironment and healing wounds. In this review, we focus on the specificity of the microenvironment of head and neck cancer with emphasis on the mechanism of intercellular crosstalk manipulation for potential therapeutic application. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer; cancer microenvironment; cancer ecosystem; cancer-associated fibroblast; extracellular matrix; cytokine; IL-6; tumour-associated macrophages; cancer therapy cancer; cancer microenvironment; cancer ecosystem; cancer-associated fibroblast; extracellular matrix; cytokine; IL-6; tumour-associated macrophages; cancer therapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Plzák, J.; Bouček, J.; Bandúrová, V.; Kolář, M.; Hradilová, M.; Szabo, P.; Lacina, L.; Chovanec, M.; Smetana, K., Jr. The Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Microenvironment as a Potential Target for Cancer Therapy. Cancers 2019, 11, 440. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040440

AMA Style

Plzák J, Bouček J, Bandúrová V, Kolář M, Hradilová M, Szabo P, Lacina L, Chovanec M, Smetana K Jr.. The Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Microenvironment as a Potential Target for Cancer Therapy. Cancers. 2019; 11(4):440. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040440

Chicago/Turabian Style

Plzák, Jan; Bouček, Jan; Bandúrová, Veronika; Kolář, Michal; Hradilová, Miluše; Szabo, Pavol; Lacina, Lukáš; Chovanec, Martin; Smetana, Karel, Jr. 2019. "The Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Microenvironment as a Potential Target for Cancer Therapy" Cancers 11, no. 4: 440. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040440

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