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Toxins 2019, 11(2), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11020097

RNA-Seq Transcriptome Profiling of the Queen Scallop (Aequipecten opercularis) Digestive Gland after Exposure to Domoic Acid-Producing Pseudo-nitzschia

1
Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Instituto de Acuicultura, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
2
Centro de Investigacións Mariñas, Xunta de Galicia, Pedras de Corón s/n Apdo 13, 36620 Vilanova de Arousa, Spain
3
Sistemas Genómicos, Ronda G. Marconi 6, Paterna, 46980 Valencia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 28 January 2019 / Accepted: 3 February 2019 / Published: 6 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Toxicological Challenges of Aquatic Toxins)
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Abstract

Some species of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia produce the toxin domoic acid, which causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP). Given that bivalve mollusks are filter feeders, they can accumulate these toxins in their tissues. To elucidate the transcriptional response of the queen scallop Aequipecten opercularis after exposure to domoic acid-producing Pseudo-nitzschia, the digestive gland transcriptome was de novo assembled using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Then, a differential gene expression analysis was performed. After the assembly, 142,137 unigenes were obtained, and a total of 10,144 genes were differentially expressed in the groups exposed to the toxin. Functional enrichment analysis found that 374 Pfam (protein families database) domains were significantly enriched. The C1q domain, the C-type lectin, the major facilitator superfamily, the immunoglobulin domain, and the cytochrome P450 were among the most enriched Pfam domains. Protein network analysis showed a small number of highly connected nodes involved in specific functions: proteasome components, mitochondrial ribosomal proteins, protein translocases of mitochondrial membranes, cytochromes P450, and glutathione S-transferases. The results suggest that exposure to domoic acid-producing organisms causes oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. The transcriptional response counteracts these effects with the up-regulation of genes coding for some mitochondrial proteins, proteasome components, and antioxidant enzymes (glutathione S-transferases, thioredoxins, glutaredoxins, and copper/zinc superoxide dismutases). View Full-Text
Keywords: amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP); domoic acid; bivalves; Aequipecten opercularis; scallop; RNA-seq; transcriptome; differential expression; qPCR; oxidative stress amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP); domoic acid; bivalves; Aequipecten opercularis; scallop; RNA-seq; transcriptome; differential expression; qPCR; oxidative stress
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Ventoso, P.; Pazos, A.J.; Pérez-Parallé, M.L.; Blanco, J.; Triviño, J.C.; Sánchez, J.L. RNA-Seq Transcriptome Profiling of the Queen Scallop (Aequipecten opercularis) Digestive Gland after Exposure to Domoic Acid-Producing Pseudo-nitzschia. Toxins 2019, 11, 97.

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