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Article

Cognitive Impairment in Coeliac Disease with Respect to Disease Duration and Gluten-Free Diet Adherence: A Pilot Study

1
Department of Infection, Immunity & Cardiovascular Disease, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2JF, UK
2
Institute for in silico Medicine, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD, UK
3
Department of Psychological Services, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, STH, Sheffield S10 2JF, UK
4
Department of Neuroscience, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2HQ, UK
5
South West Yorkshire Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, Wakefield WF1 3SP, UK
6
Academic Unit of Gastroenterology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals National Health Service Foundation Trust, Sheffield S10 2JF, UK
7
Department of Neurology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals National Health Service Foundation Trust, Sheffield S10 2JF, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the manuscript.
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2028; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072028
Received: 8 June 2020 / Revised: 24 June 2020 / Accepted: 6 July 2020 / Published: 8 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten-Related Disorders: Time to Move from Gut to Brain)
Cognitive deficit has been reported in coeliac disease (CD), but previous reports often study heterogenous samples of patients at multiple stages of the disease, or lack control data. Healthy controls (N = 21), newly diagnosed CD patients (NCD; N = 19) and established CD patients (ECD; N = 35) were recruited from a specialist UK centre. Participants underwent a cognitive test battery that established seven overall domain scores. The SF-36 was administered as a quality of life (QoL) measure. Controlling for age, data were compared in between-group ANCOVAs with Tukey’s post-hoc test. Any significant outcome was compared in the ECD group only, between patients who were gluten-free diet adherent vs. non-adherent (defined via Biagi score and serology results). NCD and ECD groups underperformed relative to controls, by comparable degrees, in visual (overall model: p < 0.001) and verbal (p = 0.046) memory. The ECD group only underperformed in visuoconstructive abilities (p = 0.050). Regarding QoL, the NCD group reported lower vitality (p = 0.030), while the ECD group reported more bodily pain (p = 0.009). Comparisons based on dietary adherence were non-significant. These findings confirm cognitive deficit in CD. Dysfunction appears established at the point of diagnosis, after which it (predominantly) stabilises. While a beneficial effect of dietary treatment is therefore implied, future research is needed to establish to what extent any further decline is due to gluten exposure. View Full-Text
Keywords: coeliac disease; cognition; neurology; gluten-free diet; disease duration coeliac disease; cognition; neurology; gluten-free diet; disease duration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Croall, I.D.; Tooth, C.; Venneri, A.; Poyser, C.; Sanders, D.S.; Hoggard, N.; Hadjivassiliou, M. Cognitive Impairment in Coeliac Disease with Respect to Disease Duration and Gluten-Free Diet Adherence: A Pilot Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2028. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072028

AMA Style

Croall ID, Tooth C, Venneri A, Poyser C, Sanders DS, Hoggard N, Hadjivassiliou M. Cognitive Impairment in Coeliac Disease with Respect to Disease Duration and Gluten-Free Diet Adherence: A Pilot Study. Nutrients. 2020; 12(7):2028. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072028

Chicago/Turabian Style

Croall, Iain D.; Tooth, Claire; Venneri, Annalena; Poyser, Charlotte; Sanders, David S.; Hoggard, Nigel; Hadjivassiliou, Marios. 2020. "Cognitive Impairment in Coeliac Disease with Respect to Disease Duration and Gluten-Free Diet Adherence: A Pilot Study" Nutrients 12, no. 7: 2028. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072028

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