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Open AccessReview

Current Evidence on the Efficacy of Gluten-Free Diets in Multiple Sclerosis, Psoriasis, Type 1 Diabetes and Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases

1
Multiple Sclerosis Clinic, Department of Neurology, Rigshospitalet-Glostrup, Valdemar Hansens Vej 13, 2600 Glostrup, Denmark
2
Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark
3
The Bartholin Institute, Rigshospitalet, Ole Maaløes Vej 5, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2316; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082316
Received: 15 July 2020 / Revised: 29 July 2020 / Accepted: 30 July 2020 / Published: 1 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten-Related Disorders: Time to Move from Gut to Brain)
In this review, we summarize the clinical data addressing a potential role for gluten in multiple sclerosis (MS), psoriasis, type 1 diabetes (T1D) and autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs). Furthermore, data on the prevalence of celiac disease (CD) and gluten-related antibodies in the above patient groups are presented. Adequately powered and properly controlled intervention trials investigating the effects of a gluten-free diet (GFD) in non-celiac patients with MS, psoriasis, T1D or ATDs are lacking. Only one clinical trial has studied the effects of a GFD among patients with MS. The trial found significant results, but it is subject to major methodological limitations. A few publications have found beneficial effects of a GFD in a subgroup of patients with psoriasis that were seropositive for anti-gliadin or deamidated gliadin antibodies, but no effects were seen among seronegative patients. Studies on the role of gluten in T1D are contradictive, however, it seems likely that a GFD may contribute to normalizing metabolic control without affecting levels of islet autoantibodies. Lastly, the effects of a GFD in non-celiac patients with ATDs have not been studied yet, but some publications report that thyroid-related antibodies respond to a GFD in patients with concomitant CD and ATDs. Overall, there is currently not enough evidence to recommend a GFD to non-celiac patients with MS, psoriasis, ATDs or T1D. View Full-Text
Keywords: gluten; gluten-free diet; gliadin; autoimmunity; neurology; multiple sclerosis; psoriasis; autoimmune thyroid disease; type 1 diabetes; celiac disease gluten; gluten-free diet; gliadin; autoimmunity; neurology; multiple sclerosis; psoriasis; autoimmune thyroid disease; type 1 diabetes; celiac disease
MDPI and ACS Style

Passali, M.; Josefsen, K.; Frederiksen, J.L.; Antvorskov, J.C. Current Evidence on the Efficacy of Gluten-Free Diets in Multiple Sclerosis, Psoriasis, Type 1 Diabetes and Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2316. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082316

AMA Style

Passali M, Josefsen K, Frederiksen JL, Antvorskov JC. Current Evidence on the Efficacy of Gluten-Free Diets in Multiple Sclerosis, Psoriasis, Type 1 Diabetes and Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases. Nutrients. 2020; 12(8):2316. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082316

Chicago/Turabian Style

Passali, Moschoula; Josefsen, Knud; Frederiksen, Jette L.; Antvorskov, Julie C. 2020. "Current Evidence on the Efficacy of Gluten-Free Diets in Multiple Sclerosis, Psoriasis, Type 1 Diabetes and Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases" Nutrients 12, no. 8: 2316. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082316

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