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Article

A Posteriori Dietary Patterns and Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity: A Beneficial Role of Vegetable and Animal Unsaturated Fatty Acids

1
Branch of Medical Statistics, Biometry, and Epidemiology “G. A. Maccacaro”, Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via A. Vanzetti 5, 20133 Milano, Italy
2
Department of Medicine, University of Udine, Via Colugna 50, 33100 Udine, Italy
3
Division of Clinical Rheumatology, ASST Pini-CTO, Via G. Pini 9, 20122 Milano, Italy
4
Research Center for Adult and Pediatric Rheumatic Diseases and Research Center for Environmental Health Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via G. Pini 9, 20122 Milano, Italy
5
Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 97, 95123 Catania, Italy
6
Research Laboratories and Academic Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genova—IRCCS San Martino Polyclinic Hospital, Viale Benedetto XV 6, 16132 Genova, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3856; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123856
Received: 16 November 2020 / Revised: 11 December 2020 / Accepted: 14 December 2020 / Published: 17 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Rheumatoid Arthritis)
To our knowledge, no studies have investigated the relationship between a posteriori dietary patterns (DPs)—representing current dietary behavior—and disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We analyzed data from a recent Italian cross-sectional study including 365 RA patients (median age: 58.46 years, 78.63% females). Prevalent DPs were identified through principal component factor analysis on 33 nutrients. RA activity was measured according to the Disease Activity Score on 28 joints (DAS28) and the Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI). Single DPs were related to disease activity through linear and logistic regression models, adjusted for the remaining DPs and confounders. We identified five DPs (~80% variance explained). Among them, Vegetable unsaturated fatty acids (VUFA) and Animal unsaturated fatty acids (AUFA) DPs were inversely related to DAS28 in the overall analysis, and in the more severe or long-standing RA subgroups; the highest score reductions (VUFA: 0.81, AUFA: 0.71) were reached for the long-standing RA. The SDAI was inversely related with these DPs in subgroups only. This Italian study shows that scoring high on DPs based on unsaturated fats from either source provides independent beneficial effects of clinical relevance on RA disease activity, thus strengthening evidence on the topic. View Full-Text
Keywords: cross-sectional study; a posteriori dietary patterns; diet; disease activity; DAS28; SDAI; factor analysis; rheumatoid arthritis cross-sectional study; a posteriori dietary patterns; diet; disease activity; DAS28; SDAI; factor analysis; rheumatoid arthritis
MDPI and ACS Style

Edefonti, V.; Parpinel, M.; Ferraroni, M.; Boracchi, P.; Schioppo, T.; Scotti, I.; Ubiali, T.; Currenti, W.; De Lucia, O.; Cutolo, M.; Caporali, R.; Ingegnoli, F. A Posteriori Dietary Patterns and Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity: A Beneficial Role of Vegetable and Animal Unsaturated Fatty Acids. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3856. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123856

AMA Style

Edefonti V, Parpinel M, Ferraroni M, Boracchi P, Schioppo T, Scotti I, Ubiali T, Currenti W, De Lucia O, Cutolo M, Caporali R, Ingegnoli F. A Posteriori Dietary Patterns and Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity: A Beneficial Role of Vegetable and Animal Unsaturated Fatty Acids. Nutrients. 2020; 12(12):3856. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123856

Chicago/Turabian Style

Edefonti, Valeria, Maria Parpinel, Monica Ferraroni, Patrizia Boracchi, Tommaso Schioppo, Isabella Scotti, Tania Ubiali, Walter Currenti, Orazio De Lucia, Maurizio Cutolo, Roberto Caporali, and Francesca Ingegnoli. 2020. "A Posteriori Dietary Patterns and Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity: A Beneficial Role of Vegetable and Animal Unsaturated Fatty Acids" Nutrients 12, no. 12: 3856. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123856

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