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Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010122

Lactofermented Annurca Apple Puree as a Functional Food Indicated for the Control of Plasma Lipid and Oxidative Amine Levels: Results from a Randomised Clinical Trial

1
Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples Federico II, Via D. Montesano 49, 80131 Naples, Italy
2
Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Cardarelli, Via Antonio Cardarelli, 80131 Naples, Italy
3
Coop. Samnium Medica, Viale C. Colombo, 18, 82037 Benevento, Italy
4
UCCP (Unità Complessa Cure Primarie), Via Manzoni, San Giorgio del Sannio, 82100 Benevento, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 November 2018 / Revised: 26 December 2018 / Accepted: 31 December 2018 / Published: 9 January 2019
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Abstract

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases are preferential targets of healthy diet and preventive medicine partially through strategies to improve lipid profile and counteract oxidative metabolites. Ninety individuals with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors were randomized (1:1:1 ratio) to three arms, according to a four-week run-in, eight-week intervention, and four-week follow up study, testing the effects of a lactofermented Annurca apple puree (lfAAP), compared to unfermented apple puree (AAP) or probiotic alone (LAB) on plasma lipid profile and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) levels. By comparing the treatments, data indicated for the subjects tested with lfAAP a higher variation of the following serum parameters, in respect to the other treatment groups: high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), +61.8% (p = 0.0095); and TMAO levels, −63.1% (p = 0.0042). The present study would suggest lfAAP as an effective functional food for beneficial control of plasma HDL-C and TMAO levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: functional food; Annurca apple puree; Lactobacillus; fermentation; plasma lipids; trimethylamine-N-oxide functional food; Annurca apple puree; Lactobacillus; fermentation; plasma lipids; trimethylamine-N-oxide
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Tenore, G.C.; Caruso, D.; Buonomo, G.; D’Avino, M.; Ciampaglia, R.; Maisto, M.; Schisano, C.; Bocchino, B.; Novellino, E. Lactofermented Annurca Apple Puree as a Functional Food Indicated for the Control of Plasma Lipid and Oxidative Amine Levels: Results from a Randomised Clinical Trial. Nutrients 2019, 11, 122.

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