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Open AccessArticle

Individualized Meal Replacement Therapy Improves Clinically Relevant Long-Term Glycemic Control in Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Patients

1
West-German Centre of Diabetes and Health, Düsseldorf Catholic Hospital Group, Hohensandweg 37, 40591 Düsseldorf, Germany
2
Faculty of Medicine, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Equal authorship.
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1022; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081022
Received: 14 June 2018 / Revised: 28 July 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 4 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Nutrition-1)
Background Formula diets can improve glycemic control or can even induce remission in type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that especially an individualized intense meal replacement by a low-carbohydrate formula diet with accompanied self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) contributes to long-term improvements in HbA1c, weight, and cardiometabolic risk factors in poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. Methods Type 2 diabetes patients were randomized into either a moderate group (M-group) with two meal replacements/day (n = 160) or a stringent group (S-group) with three meal replacements/day (n = 149) during the first week of intervention (1300–1500 kcal/day). Subsequently, both groups reintroduced a low-carbohydrate lunch based on individual adaption due to SMBG in weeks 2–4. After week 4, breakfast was reintroduced until week 12. During the follow-up period, all of the participants were asked to continue replacing one meal per day until the 52-weeks follow-up. Additionally, an observational control group (n = 100) remained in routine care. Parameters were compared at baseline, after 12 and 52 weeks within and between all of the groups. Results 321 participants (83%) completed the acute meal replacement phase after 12 weeks and 279 participants (72%) the whole intervention after 52 weeks. Both intervention groups achieved improvements in HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, blood pressure, and weight (all p < 0.001) within 12 weeks. However, these results were not significantly different between both of the intervention groups. The estimated treatment difference in HbA1c reduction was (mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) -0.10% with 95% CI [−0.40; 0.21] also (p > 0.05) (S-group vs. M-group) not statistically different after 12 weeks. However, only the S-group showed a clinically relevant improvement in HbA1c of −0.81% [−1.06; −0.55] (p < 0.001) after 52 weeks of follow-up, whereas HbA1c was not statistically different between the M- and control group. Conclusion Individualized meal replacement with SMBG demonstrated beneficial effects on HbA1c and cardiometabolic parameters in type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, the initiation of a weight loss program with one week of full meal replacement (three meals per day) resulted in a clinically relevant long-term HbA1c reduction, as compared to an observational control group that had standard care. View Full-Text
Keywords: type 2 diabetes; low-carbohydrate diet; HbA1c; weight loss; formula diet type 2 diabetes; low-carbohydrate diet; HbA1c; weight loss; formula diet
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kempf, K.; Röhling, M.; Niedermeier, K.; Gärtner, B.; Martin, S. Individualized Meal Replacement Therapy Improves Clinically Relevant Long-Term Glycemic Control in Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Patients. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1022. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081022

AMA Style

Kempf K, Röhling M, Niedermeier K, Gärtner B, Martin S. Individualized Meal Replacement Therapy Improves Clinically Relevant Long-Term Glycemic Control in Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Patients. Nutrients. 2018; 10(8):1022. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081022

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kempf, Kerstin; Röhling, Martin; Niedermeier, Katja; Gärtner, Babette; Martin, Stephan. 2018. "Individualized Meal Replacement Therapy Improves Clinically Relevant Long-Term Glycemic Control in Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Patients" Nutrients 10, no. 8: 1022. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081022

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