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Article

The Acute Effects of Caffeinated Black Coffee on Cognition and Mood in Healthy Young and Older Adults

1
Brain, Performance and Nutrition Research Centre, Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon-Tyne NE1 8ST, UK
2
Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon-Tyne NE1 8ST, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1386; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101386
Received: 20 August 2018 / Revised: 20 September 2018 / Accepted: 24 September 2018 / Published: 30 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health)
Cognitive and mood benefits of coffee are often attributed to caffeine. However, emerging evidence indicates behavioural effects of non-caffeine components within coffee, suggesting the potential for direct or synergistic effects of these compounds when consumed with caffeine in regular brewed coffee. The current randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, counterbalanced-crossover study compared the effects of regular coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and placebo on measures of cognition and mood. Age and sex effects were explored by comparing responses of older (61–80 years, N = 30) and young (20–34 years, N = 29) males and females. Computerised measures of episodic memory, working memory, attention, and subjective state were completed at baseline and 30 min post-drink. Regular coffee produced the expected effects of decreased reaction time and increased alertness when compared to placebo. When compared to decaffeinated coffee, increased digit vigilance accuracy and decreased tiredness and headache ratings were observed. Decaffeinated coffee also increased alertness when compared to placebo. Higher jittery ratings following regular coffee in young females and older males represented the only interaction of sex and age with treatment. These findings suggest behavioural activity of coffee beyond its caffeine content, raising issues with the use of decaffeinated coffee as a placebo and highlighting the need for further research into its psychoactive effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: coffee; caffeine; chlorogenic acids; phenolic; cognition; cognitive; mood; age; sex coffee; caffeine; chlorogenic acids; phenolic; cognition; cognitive; mood; age; sex
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MDPI and ACS Style

Haskell-Ramsay, C.F.; Jackson, P.A.; Forster, J.S.; Dodd, F.L.; Bowerbank, S.L.; Kennedy, D.O. The Acute Effects of Caffeinated Black Coffee on Cognition and Mood in Healthy Young and Older Adults. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1386. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101386

AMA Style

Haskell-Ramsay CF, Jackson PA, Forster JS, Dodd FL, Bowerbank SL, Kennedy DO. The Acute Effects of Caffeinated Black Coffee on Cognition and Mood in Healthy Young and Older Adults. Nutrients. 2018; 10(10):1386. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101386

Chicago/Turabian Style

Haskell-Ramsay, Crystal F., Philippa A. Jackson, Joanne S. Forster, Fiona L. Dodd, Samantha L. Bowerbank, and David O. Kennedy 2018. "The Acute Effects of Caffeinated Black Coffee on Cognition and Mood in Healthy Young and Older Adults" Nutrients 10, no. 10: 1386. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101386

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